TOPIC : Programming Model

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TOPIC : Programming Model. UNIT 1: Modeling Digital Circuits. Module 1 : Functional Modeling. Programming model. All the combinational elements in a circuit can be represented in a programming model. Any logic function is expressed in terms of basic logic operations namely NOT AND,NAND

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### TOPIC : Programming Model

UNIT 1: Modeling Digital Circuits

Module 1 : Functional Modeling

Programming model
• All the combinational elements in a circuit can be represented in a programming model.
• Any logic function is expressed in terms of basic logic operations namely
• NOT
• AND,NAND
• OR,NOR
• EXOR,EXNOR
• Code based programs can be written for any digital circuit using the above operations.
• Assembly coding is an example of programming model.
Example of programming model

LDA A //Load A in accumulator

XOR B // A xor B

STA E // Store A xor B in E

XOR C // A xor B xor C

STA Sum // store it in Sum

LDA E

AND C

STA F

LDA A

AND B

STA G

LDA F

OR G

STA Cout

E

F

G

Register Transfer Language(RTL) Model
• RTL- A kind of hardware description language (HDL)
• It is used in describing the registers of a computer or digital electronic system, and the way in which data is transferred between them.
• In computer, data words are stored in registers and memories are organized as arrays of registers.
• For example :
• register A[0:7] // A is a 8 bit register
• memory M[0:7;0:255] // A 256 array of 8 bit register
• RTLs provide models for systems at the register and instruction set levels.
RTL model
• In this we make HDL models of registered circuits and how signals interact between them such as memories, flip flops, latches, shift registers, and so on.
• RTL codes are fully synthesizable(can be realized in hardware), because they are written using basic HDL structures.
• RTL models are characterized as functional, because they emphasize functional description while providing only summary about structural circuits.
Example of RTL model

E = A XOR B

F = E AND Cin

G = A AND B

S = E XOR Cin

Cout = F OR G

• Here A, B, Cin are input registers and Cout, S are the output registers. E, F, and G are intermediate registers

E

F

G

RTL detail
• Primitive operator : This describes the processing and transfer of data. Example

C = A + B

• Conditional operator : Control of data transformation.

For example : if (x) then c = A + B

• Case operator : This is used for multiway decision. Example : signal{X[0:1]}

case 0 : C = A + B;

……….

case 3 : C = A – B;