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TOPIC : Programming ModelPowerPoint Presentation

TOPIC : Programming Model

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Programming model

- All the combinational elements in a circuit can be represented in a programming model.
- Any logic function is expressed in terms of basic logic operations namely
- NOT
- AND,NAND
- OR,NOR
- EXOR,EXNOR

- Code based programs can be written for any digital circuit using the above operations.
- Assembly coding is an example of programming model.

Example of programming model

LDA A //Load A in accumulator

XOR B // A xor B

STA E // Store A xor B in E

XOR C // A xor B xor C

STA Sum // store it in Sum

LDA E

AND C

STA F

LDA A

AND B

STA G

LDA F

OR G

STA Cout

E

F

G

Register Transfer Language(RTL) Model

- RTL- A kind of hardware description language (HDL)
- It is used in describing the registers of a computer or digital electronic system, and the way in which data is transferred between them.
- In computer, data words are stored in registers and memories are organized as arrays of registers.
- For example :
- register A[0:7] // A is a 8 bit register
- memory M[0:7;0:255] // A 256 array of 8 bit register

- RTLs provide models for systems at the register and instruction set levels.

RTL model

- In this we make HDL models of registered circuits and how signals interact between them such as memories, flip flops, latches, shift registers, and so on.
- RTL codes are fully synthesizable(can be realized in hardware), because they are written using basic HDL structures.
- RTL models are characterized as functional, because they emphasize functional description while providing only summary about structural circuits.

Example of RTL model

E = A XOR B

F = E AND Cin

G = A AND B

S = E XOR Cin

Cout = F OR G

- Here A, B, Cin are input registers and Cout, S are the output registers. E, F, and G are intermediate registers

E

F

G

RTL detail

- Primitive operator : This describes the processing and transfer of data. Example
C = A + B

- Conditional operator : Control of data transformation.
For example : if (x) then c = A + B

- Case operator : This is used for multiway decision. Example : signal{X[0:1]}
case 0 : C = A + B;

……….

case 3 : C = A – B;

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