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TOPIC : Programming Model. UNIT 1: Modeling Digital Circuits. Module 1 : Functional Modeling. Programming model. All the combinational elements in a circuit can be represented in a programming model. Any logic function is expressed in terms of basic logic operations namely NOT AND,NAND

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Topic programming model

TOPIC : Programming Model

UNIT 1: Modeling Digital Circuits

Module 1 : Functional Modeling


Programming model

Programming model

  • All the combinational elements in a circuit can be represented in a programming model.

  • Any logic function is expressed in terms of basic logic operations namely

    • NOT

    • AND,NAND

    • OR,NOR

    • EXOR,EXNOR

  • Code based programs can be written for any digital circuit using the above operations.

  • Assembly coding is an example of programming model.


Example of programming model

Example of programming model

LDA A//Load A in accumulator

XOR B// A xor B

STA E// Store A xor B in E

XOR C// A xor B xor C

STA Sum // store it in Sum

LDA E

AND C

STA F

LDA A

AND B

STA G

LDA F

OR G

STA Cout

E

F

G


Register transfer language rtl model

Register Transfer Language(RTL) Model

  • RTL- A kind of hardware description language (HDL)

  • It is used in describing the registers of a computer or digital electronic system, and the way in which data is transferred between them.

  • In computer, data words are stored in registers and memories are organized as arrays of registers.

  • For example :

    • register A[0:7] // A is a 8 bit register

    • memory M[0:7;0:255] // A 256 array of 8 bit register

  • RTLs provide models for systems at the register and instruction set levels.


Rtl model

RTL model

  • In this we make HDL models of registered circuits and how signals interact between them such as memories, flip flops, latches, shift registers, and so on.

  • RTL codes are fully synthesizable(can be realized in hardware), because they are written using basic HDL structures.

  • RTL models are characterized as functional, because they emphasize functional description while providing only summary about structural circuits.


Example of rtl model

Example of RTL model

E = A XOR B

F = E AND Cin

G = A AND B

S = E XOR Cin

Cout = F OR G

  • Here A, B, Cin are input registers and Cout, S are the output registers. E, F, and G are intermediate registers

E

F

G


Rtl detail

RTL detail

  • Primitive operator : This describes the processing and transfer of data. Example

    C = A + B

  • Conditional operator : Control of data transformation.

    For example : if (x) then c = A + B

  • Case operator : This is used for multiway decision. Example : signal{X[0:1]}

    case 0 : C = A + B;

    ……….

    case 3 : C = A – B;


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