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CHAPTER Network Hardware. Chapter Objectives. Describe the important basic network hardware and the internetworking hardware Discuss the desired characteristics of a server and a workstation Present different switching technologies Examine the routing process with the help of an example.

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chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Describe the important basic network hardware and the internetworking hardware
  • Discuss the desired characteristics of a server and a workstation
  • Present different switching technologies
  • Examine the routing process with the help of an example
introduction

Introduction

Module 1

(4-06)

network hardware categories
Network Hardware Categories
  • Local networking hardware
  • Internetworking hardware
local networking hardware
Local Networking Hardware
  • Network Interface Cards (NICs)
  • Cables
  • Connectors
  • Line drivers or repeaters
  • Hubs / Switches
  • Servers
  • Workstations
internetworking hardware
Internetworking Hardware
  • Line drivers or repeaters
  • Transceivers
  • Bridges
  • Switches
  • Routers
  • Gateways
current day internetworking devices
Current Day Internetworking Devices
  • Mostly confined to the following:
    • Switches
    • Routers
manageable devices
Manageable Devices
  • Switches and routers in a large network can be managed from a remote console
module

MODULE

Network Interface Cards (NICs)

nic basics
NIC Basics
  • Technology used
  • Connectors used
  • Speed of the network
  • Interface technologies
an actual nic description
An Actual NIC Description
  • 100BaseTX, PCI card
    • 100 = speed in Mbps
    • Base =Ethernet
    • TX = Twisted pair
    • 32-bit = bus width; it may also be 64-bit wide
    • PCI = bus technology
10baset nic
10BaseT NIC
  • 10BaseT cards
    • Physical star and logical bus networks
    • 10 Mbps speed
    • Ethernet standard
    • Twisted pair wiring
    • RJ-45 Connectors
10base2 nic
10Base2 NIC
  • 10base2 cards
    • Physical bus and logical bus networks
    • 10 Mbps speed
    • Ethernet standard
    • Thin coaxial wiring
    • BNC connectors
10base5 nics
10Base5 NICs
  • 10Base5
    • Physical bus and logical star networks
    • 10 Mbps speed
    • Ethernet standard
    • Thick coaxial wiring
    • AUI connectors are used
  • Note: 10BaseT, 10Base2 and 10Base5 are not used widely in practice anymore
100basetx nic
100BaseTX NIC
  • 100BaseTX
    • 100 Mbps speed
    • Fast Ethernet standard
    • Twisted pair
      • Higher quality Category 5 wires are normally required to implement 100 mbps Ethernet networks
1000baset nics
1000BaseT NICs
  • 1000BaseT
    • 1000 Mbps
    • Ethernet
    • Twisted-pair wire
      • Category 5e
  • 1000BaseF
    • 1000 Mbps
    • Ethernet
    • Optical fiber wire
1000baset nic source 3com
1000BaseT NICSource: 3Com

Note the RJ-45 connection and the

status lights on the card

gigabit ethernet fiber nic source 3com
Gigabit Ethernet Fiber NICSource: 3Com
  • Note the two connectors for
  • the RX and TX connections
  • For use with PCI and PCI-X
  • servers
gigabit ethernet nic properties source 3com
Gigabit Ethernet NIC Properties(Source: 3Com)
  • Tenfold throughput boost: accelerate Fast Ethernet server connections to 1000 Mbps
  • Fiber-optic cabling supports data security and faster throughput
  • Automatic link aggregation and fail-over allow multiple NIC connections to be installed
  • Advanced server features maximize availability, scalability, and fault tolerance
gigabit ethernet nic properties source 3com1
Gigabit Ethernet NIC Properties(Source: 3Com)
  • 64-bit PCI and PCI-X support: faster transmissions with lower CPU utilization
  • Centralized, standards-compliant management lowers network administration time and total cost of ownership
  • TCP/UDP/IP checksum offloads reduce host CPU load for improved system performance
  • PCI Hot-Plug lets you remove/replace server NICs without taking the server offline
token ring cards
Token Ring Cards
  • Token ring network cards
  • Earlier token ring cards
    • 4/1 Mbps
  • Later token ring cards
    • 16/4 Mbps
  • Newer token ring cards
    • Fast token ring networks
    • 100/16/4 Mbps
pci bus types for nics
PCI Bus Types for NICs
  • Width
    • Bus width is 32-bit or 64-bit
  • Bus frequency
    • 33 MHz
    • 66 MHz
    • 100 MHz etc.
  • Technology
    • PCI
    • PCI-X
    • PCI Express
slide26

Source: Tomshardware:

www6.tomshardware.com/howto/02q3/020904/diy-06.html

cable connections for nics
Cable Connections for NICs
  • BNC barrel connector
    • Thin coaxial
  • RJ 45
    • Twisted pair
  • Note the difference between RJ 11 and RJ-45
    • RJ-11 is smaller and it is used in telephone connection
    • RJ-45 is larger and it is used in LAN connections
coaxial cable connectors
Coaxial Cable Connectors

T connector

Network

Interface

Card

Thin coaxial

cable

BNC

Terminator

aui and combo cable connections for nics
AUI and Combo Cable Connections for NICs
  • AUI Possibilities
    • Designed for a thick coaxial cable
    • Designed for a token ring network
  • Combo Cards
    • Consisting of different ports
    • BNC, RJ-45, AUI
rj 45 connectors
RJ-45 Connectors

RJ-45 Port

RJ-45 Connector

possible combo card connections
Possible Combo Card Connections
  • Thin coaxial cables (BNC)
  • Twisted pair wires (RJ-45)
  • Phone connection (RJ11)
  • Thick coaxial cables (AUI)
wireless network interface cards
Wireless Network Interface Cards
  • IEEE 802.11b
    • 2.4 GHz, 11 Mbps
  • IEEE 802.11b+, IEEE 802.11g?
    • 2.4 GHz, up to 20% more throughput
  • IEEE 802.11a
    • 5.8 GHz, 54 Mbps
  • IEEE 802.11g
      • 2.4 GHz, 54 Mbps, 108 Mbps (Full duplex)?
  • IEEE 802.11n
example of older 10base2 card
Example of Older 10Base2 Card

BNC

Source: Black Box

example of older 10baset card
Example of Older 10BaseT Card

ISA

RJ 45

Source: Black Box

example of older combo card
Example of Older Combo Card

RJ 45

Combo

BNC

Source: Black Box

d link 100basetx specs source d link
D-Link 100BaseTX Specs(Source D-Link)
  • A manageable 10/100MB Dual Speed Ethernet PCI Network Interface Card with Wake-On-LAN (WOL)
  • Fully compliant with IEEE802.3 10Base-T, IEEE 802.3u 100Base-T specifications
  • Supports ACPI/WOL (Advanced Configuration Power Management Interface) feature, IP Multicast packet filtering, PXE (PreBoot execution Environment) Boot ROM, IEEE 802.1p, IEEE 802.1Q, and DMI (Desktop Management Interface).
a note on remote wake on lan source intel
A Note on Remote Wake on LAN(Source: Intel)
  • A remote wake-up technology that enables you to remotely power systems "on" for off-hours maintenance. A result of the Intel-IBM Advanced Manageability Alliance and part of the Wired for Management Baseline Specification, this technology helps save time on automated software installations, upgrades, disk backups and virus scans. Equally important, it increases end-user productivity by moving such planned disruptions to off-hours.
fast ethernet pc multi port card
Fast Ethernet PC Multi-Port Card

NIC and

modem connections

fast ethernet card specs
Fast Ethernet Card Specs.

The D-Link DMF-560TX is a 10/100Mb Dual Speed Ethernet PC Card with an integrated V.90/K56flex Data/Fax Modem. The DMF-560TX is targeted at notebook and laptop users that connect to a wide variety of data-communications devices and services, and require access to faster technologies. Laptop users are able to seamlessly connect to both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet LANs, as well as send and receive faxes, connect to the Internet, and dial into a Remote Access Server or PC using this one PCMCIA PC Card solution.

The DMF-560TX strictly adheres to the IEEE Ethernet standards and the ITU Data Communications and Modem standards in order to ensure maximum interoperability. The DMF-560TX attempts to connect at the highest speed supported by an ISP, LAN, host modem, or fax machine and automatically defaults to a lower speed until a stable connection can be created.

fast ethernet card operational specs
Fast Ethernet Card Operational Specs.
  • Modem Operating Protocols
    • V.90 (down-stream up to 56,000 bps)
    • K56flex (down-stream up to 56,000 bps)
    • V.34bis (up to 33,600 bps)
    • V.34 (2,400 to 28,800 bps)
    • V.32bis, V.32, V.22bis, V.23, V.22/Bell 212A, V.21/Bell 103
  • Error Correction Data Compression
    • V.42/V.42bis and MCP Class 2 to 5
  • Fax Compatibility
    • Group 3 send and receive
    • EIA Class 1 fax commands
    • V.17 (14,400 bps), V.29 (9600 bps), V.27ter (4800 bps),
    • V.21 (300bps)
token ring adapter nic
Token Ring Adapter (NIC)

Note the connector type.

wireless pc card specs
Wireless PC Card Specs

D-LinkAir  DWL-650 PC Card Type-II11Mbps Wireless LAN Adapter

The D-Link DWL-650 is an IEEE 802.11b compliant PC Card Type-II 11Mbps wireless LAN adapter. The DWL-650 will operate in 2.4 GHz Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) for wireless networks in the home or office environment. It is designed to operate in 3.3V or 5.0V DC slots. In addition, the DWL-650 uses a 64/128-bit WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Encryption for a secure network connection.

The D-Link DWL-650 can operate in either Ad-Hoc mode (Peer-to-Peer networking without access point) or Infrastructure mode (Peer-to-Peer networking using an access point). In Infrastructure mode, the DWL-650 can be connected to a broadband residential gateway or a DSL/Cable modem for high-speed wireless Internet access on the existing network.

wireless pc card specs1
Wireless PC Card Specs

The DWL-650 can transmit data at 11, 5.5, 2 or 1 Mbps per channel. The DWL-650 transmit rate values can be manually selected for Auto Select 1 or 2 Mbps, Fixed 1 Mbps, Fixed 11 Mbps, Fixed 2 Mbps, Fixed 5.5 Mbps and Fully Auto. The DWL-650 has full mobility and seamless roaming from cell to cell as well as across access points. The range of coverage per cell for indoor use is up to 328 feet and up to 984 feet per cell for outdoor use.

The DWL-650 comes with an internal non-detachable diversity patch antenna and one built-in green LED indicator for power, network link and activity. The DWL-650 is compatible with Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows 2000, Windows XP.

wireless pci card specs
Wireless PCI Card Specs

The D-LinkAir DWL-520 is an IEEE 802.11b wireless PCI adapter. The DWL-520 provides an integrated PCI solution that will operate within the 2.4 GHz Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) for wireless networks in the home or office environment. Along with the advanced wireless technology that is incorporated into the DWL-520, wide range motherboard support is assured by compliance to the latest PCI 2.2 standard interface. The DWL-520 is the solution for users and network administrators looking for the convenience offered by a wireless connection.

wireless pci card specs cont
Wireless PCI Card Specs Cont.

The D-Link DWL-520 can operate in either Ad-Hoc mode (Peer-to-Peer networking without an access point) or Infrastructure mode (Peer-to-Peer networking using an access point). In Infrastructure mode, the DWL-520 can be connected to a wireless residential gateway with a broadband connection to enable wireless sharing of the High-speed Internet access.

The DWL-520 can transmit data at rates of 11Mpbs, 5.5Mbps, 2Mps and 1 Mbps per channel. With its detachable antenna using a reverse SMA connector, the DWL-520 has an effective range of up to 230 feet for indoor use and up to 984 feet in an outdoor environment. In addition, the DWL-520 supports 64/128-bit WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) Encryption for network security.

wireless 5 ghz specs
Wireless 5 GHz Specs
  • Next generation of wireless products with its high-performance D-LinkAir Pro series of 5GHz networking technology.
  • Designed for indoor use, the D-LinkAir Pro DWL-A650 is a powerful notebook PC CardBus adapter that allows users to have mobile access to networks. It provides roaming capabilities from cell to cell and network to network.
  • At 54 Megabits per second (Mbps), the D-LinkAir Pro DWL-A650 5GHz high speed wireless CardBus adapter delivers the fastest standards-based wireless technology in the industry. With IEEE 802.11a standard compliance, the D-LinkAir Pro DWL-A650 high-speed wireless adapter provides excellent network interoperability.
wireless 5 ghz specs continued
Wireless 5 GHz Specs (Continued)
  • A proprietary “Turbo” mode allows the D-LinkAir Pro DWL-A650 to operate at significantly greater data rates up to 72Mpbs. Eight non-overlapping channels create less interference, which supplies higher average cell throughput to clients. The D-LinkAir Pro DWL-A650 employs enhanced 152-bit Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and Dynamic Key Exchange to protect data from unauthorized access.
  • The D-LinkAir Pro DWL-A650 is easily installed into a laptop PC to provide connectivity directly to another wireless enabled device (ad-hoc mode) or through an 802.11a based access point (infrastructure mode).
module1

MODULE

NIC Resources

nic resources
NIC Resources
  • IRQ
  • I/O address
  • Base memory address, if provided
  • DMA, if provided
slide57
IRQ
  • Must be unique for each device, unless it is steered
    • IRQ steering
  • An NIC requires an IRQ
  • IRQ is used to gain the attention of the CPU
  • There are a limited number of IRQs available on a computer
irq assignment learnthat com

IRQ

Device

0

Timer

1

Keyboard

2

Wired to IRQ 9

3

COM 2 (COM 4)

4

COM 1 (COM 3)

5

Available (often LPT2, sound cards, or network cards)

6

Floppy Disk Controller

7

LPT1

8

Clock

9

Wired to IRQ 2

10

Unused

11

Unused

12

Mouse Port

13

Coprocessor

14

Hard Disk Controller

15

Unused

IRQ Assignment (learnthat.com)
i o address
I/O Address
  • Must be unique to each device
  • Each device of port must have an I/O address
  • The NIC must have an I/O Address as well
common i o address assginemnt learnthat com

Address (Hex)

Device

00-0F

DMA Controller

20-21

Interrupt Controller

40-43

Timer

1F0-1F8

Hard Disk Controller

200-20F

Joystick Controller

238-23B

Bus Mouse

278-27F

LPT2

2E8-2EF

COM4 Serial Port

2F8-2FF

COM2 Serial Port

300-30F

Ethernet Card

330-33F

MIDI Port

378-37F

LPT1 Port

3E8-3EF

COM3 Serial Port

3F0-3F7

Floppy Disk Controller

3F8-3FF

COM1 Serial Port

Common I/O Address Assginemnt (learnthat.com)
i o address www techencylopedia com
I/O Address (www.techencylopedia.com )
  • There is a 64K address space for I/O addresses, although typically less than 1K is used. Each board that uses an I/O address contains a few bytes of memory (16, 32, etc.) set to a default address range. One or more alternate addresses is also provided to resolve conflicts with other boards. These I/O spaces are a bunch of tiny memory banks scattered over different devices. As long as each one is set to a different address, the CPU can transmit signals to the appropriate boards without conflict.Following are the default I/O addresses for the serial and parallel ports in a PC.
i o address continued www techencylopedia com
I/O Address Continued (www.techencylopedia.com )
  • An I/O address operation takes place as follows. If a program needs to send a byte to the serial port, it issues an OUT instruction to the CPU with the address of that serial port. The CPU notifies the address bus to activate the I/O space, not regular memory, and the address bus signals the appropriate byte location on the board. The CPU then sends the data character over the data bus to that memory location.
base memory address
Base Memory Address
  • Must have a unique range for the NIC card
  • Some older cards did not require the base memory address to be specified
slide64
DMA
  • Direct Memory Access
  • Channels are assigned for DMA
  • Not all the NIC cards have DMA
  • Newer PCI technologies used for expansion slots have made DMA somewhat obsolete
dma use source learnthat com
DMA Use (Source learnthat.com)
  • In most PCs, there are 8 DMA Channels.
  • In most modern PCs, DMA shouldn\'t be used as it just slows it down. But, older PCs may use DMA.
  • Channels 4-7 are usually available, while Channel 0 is used to refresh DRAM, Channel 1 is used by a hard disk controller or sound card, and Channel 2 is usually used by the floppy disk controller.
examining the network resources
Examining the Network Resources

Device Manager

NIC

Properties

Resources

module2

MODULE

Network Connectors and Hubs

simple connectors
Simple Connectors
  • T connectors
    • An interface between the NIC and the cables
  • Terminators
    • Used at both ends of a bus network

T Connector

Terminator

example of t connector and terminator
Example of T-Connector and Terminator

T Connector

Terminator

Source: Black Box

connectors hubs
Connectors : Hubs
  • Types
    • Passive hub
    • Active hub
    • Intelligent hub
  • Passive hubs
    • Simply provides the physical and the electrical connection for the network
  • Active hubs
    • A Multi-port device
    • Amplifies LAN signals
  • Manageable hubs
    • Has built-in manageability
    • Some are manageable hubs
connectors passive hub
Connectors : Passive Hub

MAU

WS

WS

WS

Hub Connecting A Token-ring Network

a manageable hub switches
A Manageable Hub/ Switches

Backbone

WS

Manageable Hub/

Switch

WS

Remote

Workstation

WS

Remote Monitor

Active Hub

lan management software
LAN Management Software
  • Sophisticated
  • Monitor the network traffic through each of the ports
  • Becoming popular
  • Standardized protocol for remote management exists
    • SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
slide76
SNMP
  • A major protocol used in the management of networks
  • A number of LAN management software is based on the SNMP protocol
snmp cont source cisco
SNMP Cont. (Source: Cisco)
  • The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application-layer protocol designed to facilitate the exchange of management information between network devices.
  • By using SNMP-transported data (such as packets per second and network error rates), network administrators can more easily manage network performance, find and solve network problems, and plan for network growth.
  • SNMP is a relatively simple protocol, yet its feature set is sufficiently powerful to handle the difficult problems presented in trying to manage today\'s heterogeneous networks.
  • Today, SNMP is the most popular protocol for managing diverse commercial internetworks as well as those used in universities and research organizations.
snmp cont
SNMP Cont.
  • Like the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), SNMP is an Internet protocol.
  • There are two versions of SNMP: Version 1 and Version 2.
  • Most of the changes introduced in Version 2 increase SNMP\'s security capabilities. Other changes increase interoperability by more rigorously defining the specifications for SNMP implementation.
  • SNMP\'s creators believe that after a relatively brief period of coexistence, SNMP Version 2 (SNMPv2) will largely replace SNMP Version 1 (SNMPv1).
web research
Web Research
  • Obtain additional information on the following LAN troubleshooting software
    • LAN Analyzer
    • LAN Sniffer
example of hubs used in the star network
Example of Hubs Used in the Star Network

Stackable

Hubs

Source: Black Box

web research1
Web Research
  • Photonic switching
    • www.agilent.com/comms/photonicswitch
    • www.cnn.com/tech
module3

MODULE

Server and Workstation Hardware

module objectives
Module Objectives
  • Give an overview of the different types of the server hardware
  • Discuss the desired characteristics of a server
  • Provide a specification for a workstation
servers
Servers
  • Types
    • Powerful micros
    • Servers
    • Super-servers
    • Mini and large computers are used as servers
  • In a client-server environment, the server also acts as an engine for database execution
  • In general, the server is used for the sharing of stored data and application
desired characteristics of server processor and storage requirement
Desired Characteristics of Server: Processor and Storage Requirement
  • Powerful processor
    • Latest Pentium Processor for example
    • Multiple processors, if necessary
  • Large storage space
    • Several gigabytes at a minimum
    • Actual requirement will vary with LAN size
  • Fast disk access speed
    • Less than 10 ms, for example
  • Versatile CD-ROM access (Towers)
  • Fault tolerance
processors
Processors
  • Intel Pentium 4, 32-bit processors
  • Intel Itanium 64-bit processors
  • Special Xeon processors meant for servers
  • Multiple processors
    • Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP)
  • Other processors
    • Spark (Sun), AMD, Motorola, IBM’s own processors etc.
symmetric multiprocessing smp source search390 com
Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) Source: Search390.com
  • SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) is the processing of programs by multiple processors that share a common operating system and memory. In symmetric (or "tightly coupled") multiprocessing, the processors share memory and the I/O bus or data path. A single copy of the operating system is in charge of all the processors. SMP, also known as a "shared everything" system, does not usually exceed 16 processors.
chip set
Chip Set
  • Chip sets designed for servers to boost I/O operation
hard disk technologies
Hard Disk Technologies
  • SCSI
  • ATA
  • Serial ATA (SATA)
  • Fiber channel storage
  • RAID
overview of storage technologies
Overview of Storage Technologies
  • SCSI, Small Computer Systems Interface, is widely used in mid- to high- performance workstations and servers.
  • SCSI offers faster transfer rates than ATA/IDE, the interface most commonly used in desktop PCs.
  • In general, ATA/IDE is considered easier to implement and less expensive than SCSI but does not offer as many features.
    • For example, SCSI can support up to 16 devices on a single bus (IDE offers two), generally offers faster throughput, uses less CPU horsepower during operation, and is therefore more efficient in demanding multiple initiator applications for multi-users and uses. This is significant because it allows the processor to perform more commands at one time making for greater efficiency.
scsi standards

SCSI

Fast SCSI

Ultra SCSI

Wide Ultra SCSI

Ultra2 SCSI

Wide Ultra2 SCSI

Ultra3 SCSI

Data transfer rates max. Bus speed (MB/sec)

5

10

20

40

40

80

160

Maximum Data Bus width (bits)

8-bit

8-bit

8-bit

16-bit

8-bit

16-bit

16-bit

Max. cable length (meters)

6

3

1.5 - 3

1.5 - 3

12

12

12

Max. device support

8

8

8 - 4

8 - 4

8

16

16

SCSI Standards
scsi terms source ibm
SCSI Terms (source: IBM)
  • The SCSI terms Fast, Ultra, or Ultra2 typically refer to data rate increases that move data faster on the bus, while the term Wide refers to adding more lanes to the bus, typically transferring 16 bits of data at one time rather than eight bits. Other differences between the standards include the maximum cable length and the number of devices that can exist on the same SCSI bus.
ultra 3 scsi source ibm
Ultra 3 SCSI (source: IBM)
  • As one of the recent developments in SCSI, Ultra3 SCSI presents significant feature and benefit enhancements over Ultra2 SCSI products. Ultra3 SCSI products are designed to offer, at a minimum, the following features: Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)  , domain validation  , and double transition clocking  , none of which are available in Ultra2 SCSI products.
  • These features are designed to improve speed, performance, and overall manageability of SCSI.
ultra 160 source ibm
Ultra 160 (source: IBM)
  • The subset of Ultra3 that includes the three features, Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)  , domain validation  , and double transition clocking  , is commonly called Ultra160, for its speed 160MB per/sec. The main difference between Ultra3 and Ultra160 is that Ultra3 implementations may offer other features in addition to those listed above.
slide97
ATA
  • The term ATA stands for Advanced Technology Attachment, for the standard bus interface on the original IBM AT computer. This interface also is called IDE, for Integrated Drive Electronics; ATA is the official ANSI (American National Standard Institute) standard designation.
  • Also known as Ultra DMA, ATA is generally the least expensive hard drive interface; many computer motherboards include ATA controllers and cable connectors that typically control the "C" drive that contains the operating system. However, ATA is a slightly slower drive interface, so it is used primarily in single user computer applications or low-end RAID systems.
ata variations

ATA/

ATA-2

Ultra-ATA/33

Ultra-ATA/66

Data transfer ratesmax. Bus speed(MB/sec)

8.3

16.6

33

66

Maximum Data Buswidth (bits)

16-bit

16-bit

16-bit

16-bit

Max. device support

2

2

2

2

ATA Variations
fiber channel
Fiber-Channel
  • Fiber Channel - Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) is an exceptionally high-bandwidth industry-standard interface primarily targeted toward high-end servers and similar demanding applications.
  • FC-AL uses fiber optic cabling in a loop configuration to produce maximum transfer speeds of 100 MB/second and is designed to connect up to 127 devices as far as 10 kilometers apart, enabling data storage in remote, secure locations distant from the server.
more on fiber channel
More on Fiber Channel
  • FC-AL devices can be dual ported, providing two simultaneous input/output sessions that doubles maximum throughput, and FC-AL enables "hot swapping," so you can add and remove hard drives without interrupting system operation, an important option in server environments.
  • FC-AL adapters tend to cost more than SCSI adapters.
pci bus technology
PCI BUS Technology
  • PCI is preferred
    • 32-bit and 64-bits
  • PCI-X
    • An extension to the PCI Bus interface
  • General PCI standards
    • PCI 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0
  • PCI Express
a note on pci x 2 0 source pcisig
A Note on PCI-X 2.0(Source PCISIG)
  • PCI-X 2.0 is an evolutionary, backward compatible technology that builds on the foundation of PCI and PCI-X while offering bandwidths 4 times higher than PCI-X without increasing pin-count.
  • These new, higher bandwidths are ideal for server-oriented adapter cards in the areas of Fibre Channel, RAID, networking, InfiniBand™ Architecture, SCSI, iSCSI, and other high-bandwidth technologies.
pci x 2 0 performance advantage source pcisig
PCI-X 2.0 Performance Advantage (Source PCISIG)
  • Doubles and Quadruples PCI-X bandwidth.
  • Enables 10Gb Ethernet, 10Gb Fiber Channel, InfiniBand™ Architecture, and other IO technologies.
  • Performance 32 times higher than the first generation of PCI.
desired characteristics of server bus and memory technologies
Desired Characteristics of Server: Bus and Memory Technologies
  • Better bus technology
    • PCI
  • Memory
    • In excess of 512 Mbytes
    • SDRAM or similar memory technology functioning at 10 nanoseconds or less
    • The 168-pin SDRAM is also known as the DIMM chips as opposed to the 72-pin SIMM chips
    • 182 DDR RAM
    • Rambus RAM
desired characteristics of server reliability
Desired Characteristics of Server: Reliability
  • Good back-up facilities
    • Back-up tape
  • Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
fault tolerant feature for servers
Fault Tolerant Feature for Servers
  • RAID storage technology
    • A system based on multiple disk
    • Hot-swappable disks
  • Redundant power supply
    • Hot-swappable power supply
hot pluggable and hot swappable
Hot Pluggable and Hot Swappable
  • Hot Pluggable
    • When a card or a device is plugged into the computer (PCI), the computer will recognize the device automatically and install the device
      • An example is a NIC
  • Hot Swappable
    • A device that can be removed and replaced without having switch off the computer
      • An example is a hard drive
workstation
Workstation
  • Most applications are executed at the workstation in the case of a file server
  • Therefore, it must be powerful in terms of the processor and the memory
  • As a rule of thumb, the workstation must be as powerful as it were to be used as a standalone unit to run the applications
workstation processor and memory
Workstation Processor and Memory
  • Powerful processor
    • Pentium class processor
  • Adequate memory
    • 32 Mbytes or more
    • DIMM preferred although fast EDO SIMM may also be used
workstation storage and compatibility
Workstation Storage and Compatibility
  • Sufficient storage
    • Storage in gigabytes
    • Important in a client-server environment
    • Front-end tools are stored on the workstation
  • Speed of storage
    • Ultra DMA or SCSI preferred
    • EIDE may also be used
  • Hardware components with appropriate drivers for the client operating system
reliability
Reliability
  • Power surge protector
  • Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), for critical applications
module4

MODULE

Repeater

an overview of repeaters
An Overview of Repeaters
  • Used for extending the physical span of a network
    • An example is the extension of the distance between a hub and a node
  • Span is often limited by design considerations
  • 10base5
    • The span is limited to 500 meters
a repeater connection
A Repeater Connection

Expanding the Span of the Network

Source: Black Box

another example of repeater connection
Another Example of Repeater Connection

Extending the distance between the backbone and the nodes.

Source: Black Box

current day use of repeaters
Current Day Use of Repeaters
  • Fiber optic repeaters are used for extending the distance between two nodes in a link or a network
operations of a repeater within the iso osi model
Operations of a Repeater Within the ISO OSI Model
  • Operates at the lower level of the ISO OSI model, namely layer 1
    • Physical layer

Physical

Layer

Repeater

Physical

Layer

Medium

Medium

another layer 1 device
Another Layer 1 Device
  • Hub
    • This is simply an electrical connecting device used in the configuration of a network
      • The topology in this case would be that of a star topology
module5

MODULE

Bridge

an overview of a bridge
An Overview of a Bridge
  • A device used for connecting two LANs operating usually under the same protocol
    • There are bridges that connect LAN segments operating under different protocols
  • Currently, the term bridge is loosely being used to describe different interconnecting devices
    • Used now for connecting LANs operating under different protocols as well
purpose of a bridge
Purpose of a Bridge
  • Facilitate the movement of data packet from one network segment to another
  • Not a sophisticated internetworking device
  • Bridge does not perform the routing of information to different segments of a network
  • Connects two network segments and not multiple network segments
bridge iso osi layer of operation
Bridge : ISO-OSI Layer of Operation

Data

Link

Layer

Data

Link

Layer

Bridge

Physical

Layer

Physical

Layer

X Medium

X Medium

A simple bridge operates at the

second layer of the ISO model.

practical bridge implementations
Practical Bridge Implementations
  • Local Bridge
  • Remote Bridge
local and remote bridges
Local and Remote Bridges
  • Local bridge
    • Connects two different LANs located locally
  • Remote bridge
    • Connects LAN segments that are geographically apart
    • An example is a device that provide dial-up access to a LAN
module6

MODULE

Switch

switch definition and purpose
Switch Definition and Purpose
  • A switch is defined as a device that allows a LAN to be segmented
    • The segments will operate under the same protocol
difference between a switch and a bridge
Difference Between a Switch and a Bridge
  • A switch focuses on segmenting a LAN
  • A bridge is concerned with linking two network segments that operate under different protocols
purpose of a switch
Purpose of a Switch
  • Improve the network performance and reliability
  • Better manage the network in general
switch iso osi layer of operation
Switch : ISO-OSI Layer of Operation

Data

Link

Layer

Data

Link

Layer

Switch

Physical

Layer

Physical

Layer

X Medium

X Medium

A simple Switch operates at the

second layer of the ISO model.

layer 3 switches
Layer 3 Switches
  • Some switches operate at Layer 3 of the ISO-OSI model
  • These switches perform routing as well
performance improvement in segmented networks
Performance Improvement in Segmented Networks
  • Performance is improved especially in the case of a bus network
  • Multiple bus paths are now available for communication
  • Each segment can engage in simultaneous communication within itself
  • Easier to isolate a problem to a segment
    • Thus, better manage the entire network
network reliability
Network Reliability
  • When one segment does not function, the other segments can continue to function
    • Offers better reliability to at least part of the function
switches in ethernet and token ring lans
Switches in Ethernet and Token Ring LANs
  • Switches were originally designed for segmenting Ethernet LANs
    • Used extensively in configuring large Ethernet bus LANs
      • Physically the network configured would still largely remain based on the star topology
  • Switches are now available for token ring networks as well
use of switches in linking lan segments
Use of Switches in Linking LAN Segments

Crossover Traffic

Switch

Segment 2

Segment 1

Hub

Hub

WS

Server

WS

Server

use of switches in internetworking
Use of Switches in Internetworking
  • Because the typical inter-networking connection involves multiple segments, the use of a switch is more common than the use of a bridge
use of switches for higher bandwidth
Use of Switches for Higher Bandwidth

100 MBps Switch

WS

WS

WS

WS

Each port in theory has a bandwidth of 100 Mbps.

module7

MODULE

Switching Technology

module objectives1
Module Objectives
  • Explain the basic operation of a switch
  • List the switching technologies and describe their operation
    • Cut-through and store-and-forward technologies
the basic operation of switches
The Basic Operation of Switches
  • A data packet is analyzed
  • Receiver’s addresses is checked
  • If it indicates the receiver to be in the same segment, the packet is dropped
  • If it indicates the receiver to be in a different segment, the packet is forwarded to a different segment

Receiver’s Address Sender’s Address Data

switching technologies
Switching Technologies
  • There are two major types of switching technologies
    • Cut-through
    • Store-and-forward
cut through technology
Cut-Through Technology
  • Reads only part of the packet
    • The addresses header
    • Packet is forwarded accordingly
  • Bad packets are not filtered
  • Faster
  • Less error checking
store and forward technology
Store-and-Forward Technology
  • Entire packet is processed
  • Packets are filtered
    • Bad packets are filtered
  • Slower
  • More error checking
switching technology comparison
Switching Technology Comparison

Header Sender’s Add Receiver’s Add

Data

Cut-through

Store-and-forward

switching technology operation at the iso layer
Switching Technology Operation at the ISO Layer
  • In each of the two cases of switching technologies no protocol conversion takes place
  • Forwarding and filtering are done at the MAC layer
  • A switch switches the traffic based on MAC address
web research2
Web Research
  • Fiber channel
  • Clustering
  • Load Balancing
module8

MODULE

Routers

the purpose of a router
The Purpose of a Router
  • Connect LANs operating under different protocols
  • The LANs connected are better known as sub-networks instead of network segments
    • The term segments is nevertheless used in practice
    • Each segment basically represents a subnet
router characteristics
Router Characteristics
  • A router is a true internetworking device
    • Connects different sub-networks together
  • Establishes a logical path of communication between the sub-networks
  • Contributes to the modular construction of a network
    • Network itself is better managed
    • Network resources are better utilized
internetworking with a router
Internetworking with a Router

IEEE 802.3

Sub-network

IEEE 802.5

Sub-network

Router

PC-NFS

Sub-network

routers switches and hubs in perspective
Routers, Switches and Hubs in Perspective

Backbone

Router

Switch

Switch

Hub

Hub

Hub

Hub

Hub

Hub

S

WS

S

WS

WS

S

WS

WS

WS

S

WS

WS

Sub-network 2

Sub-network 1

difference between routers switches and hubs
Difference Between Routers, Switches and Hubs
  • Hubs
    • Simply provides the mechanical and electrical connections between the nodes
  • Switches
    • Examine the data packet for the destination address
    • Do not alter the data packets
    • Switches based on MAC address
    • Basically a Layer 2 device
  • Routers
    • Examine and alter the data packet format
    • Perform protocol conversion
    • Routes based on IP address
    • Basically a Layer 3 device
router requirements
Router Requirements
  • Requires more processing power compared to switches and bridges
  • Operations fall within the network layer of the ISO-OSI communication model
router network layer interface
Router : Network Layer Interface

NETWORK

LAYER

ROUTER

NETWORK

LAYER

DATA LINK

LAYER

DATA LINK

LAYER

PHYSICAL

LAYER

PHYSICAL

LAYER

X MEDIUM

X MEDIUM

devices and layers
Devices and Layers

NETWORK

LAYER

Routers

Layer 3

Switches

DATA LINK

LAYER

Layer 2

Switches

PHYSICAL

LAYER

Hubs and

Repeaters

Layer 1

a practical router example
A Practical Router Example

Router

Router

Router

Router

Router

module9

MODULE

Gateway

web exercise
Web Exercise
  • Build a small network consisting of 4 workstations and 1 server for a small business
    • Provide details of the hardware in terms of the types of hardware and the cost of the hardware
  • Connect the network to the Internet
    • Again provide the cost associated with the hardware required to make the connection
  • In both of the above cases, also provide a schematic diagram showing the network connections
an introduction to gateways
An Introduction to Gateways
  • Gateways are comprehensive internetworking devices
  • They can be computers themselves
gateways in the past
Gateways in the Past
  • Very popular
  • They were the only devices that could be used for internetworking
  • Computers of the past were not designed with network connections in mind
    • Interconnection of different computer systems has to be managed and driven by an advanced device such as a gateway
the present scenario
The Present Scenario
  • Computers are now designed with due consideration given to network connections
  • Larger networks could today be configured using internetworking devices
    • Routers, switches, hubs etc.
  • Even, mainframes can be connected easily using the above internetworking devices
  • In the past, because of the different nature of the network (SNA), connecting a mainframe to a LAN often required a gateway (SAN Gateway)
use of gateways at present
Use of Gateways at Present
  • Used in the rare occasion when neither of the internetworking devices could be used for connecting the sub-networks together
  • Example
    • Connection of a legacy mainframe system to a bus LAN
rule of thump
Rule of Thump
  • Gateways are used for interconnecting vastly differing computing environments together
sna gateway
SNA Gateway

SNA

Gateway

Gateway software

Gateway

Interface

Card

FEP

Mainframe

NIC Card

WS

WS

IBM - SNA

LAN - Ethernet

gateway s functional relationship to the iso osi model
Gateway’s Functional Relationship to the ISO-OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

Gateway

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