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Aesthetics. Introduction to aesthetics. Introduction to Aesthetics. What is Aesthetics? Aesthetics Some Questions Normative. Introduction to Aesthetics. Spectrum of Aesthetics Introduction Absolutism Objectivism Relativism Subjectivism Moral Nihilism Moral Skepticism

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Aesthetics

Aesthetics

Introduction to aesthetics


Introduction to aesthetics
Introduction to Aesthetics

  • What is Aesthetics?

    • Aesthetics

    • Some Questions

    • Normative


Introduction to aesthetics1
Introduction to Aesthetics

  • Spectrum of Aesthetics

    • Introduction

    • Absolutism

    • Objectivism

    • Relativism

    • Subjectivism

    • Moral Nihilism

    • Moral Skepticism

  • Aestheticians, Art Critics and Artists


Aesthetics reasoning
Aesthetics Reasoning

  • Statements of Value vs Statements of Fact

    • Value Statements/matters of value

    • Factual statements/matters of fact

    • Objective and subjective statements

    • Objective-subjective dispute

    • Non-objectivity and reasoning


Aesthetics reasoning1
Aesthetics Reasoning

  • Aesthetic Issue

    • Issue

    • Aesthetic Issue

    • Resolution

    • Components

  • Facts

    • Relevant Facts

    • Agreement & Disagreement

    • Resolution of Factual Issues


Ethical reasoning
Ethical Reasoning

  • Concepts

    • Relevant Concepts

    • Agreement & Disagreement

    • Resolution of Conceptual Issues

  • Aesthetics/Values

    • Morality

    • Resolution

  • Values & Facts

    • Value Statements/Matters of Value

    • Factual Statements/Matters of Fact


Ethical reasoning1
Ethical Reasoning

  • Objectivity & Subjectivity

    • Objective Statement

    • Subjective Statement

    • Objective-Subjective Dispute



Argument basics1
Argument Basics

  • Argument Concepts

    • Defined

    • General Assessment: Reasoning

    • General Assessment: Are the Premises True?


Deductive arguments
Deductive Arguments

  • Introduction to Deductive Arguments

    • Defined

    • Use

    • Assessment

    • Valid/Invalid, Sound/Unsound

  • Some Common Valid Deductive Arguments

  • Reductio Ad Adsurdum

    • Defined

    • Form #1/Form #2

    • Example


Inductive arguments
Inductive Arguments

  • Introduction to Inductive Arguments

    • Defined

    • Assessment

    • Strong & Weak Arguments


Analogical argument
Analogical Argument

  • Introduction

    • Definition

    • Uses

  • Form

    • Informal

    • Strict Form

      • Premise 1: X has properties P, Q, and R.

      • Premise 2: Y has properties P, Q, and R.

      • Premise 3: X has property Z as well.

      • Conclusion: Y has property Z.


Analogical argument1
Analogical Argument

  • Assessment

    • The strength of the argument depends on

      • The number of properties X & Y have in common.

      • The relevance of the shared properties to Z.

      • Whether X & Y have relevant dissimilarities.

    • Example


Argument from by example
Argument from/by Example

  • Introduction

    • Defined

  • Form

    • Informal

    • Form

      Premise 1: Example 1 is an example that supports claim P.

      Premise 2: Example 2 is an example that supports claim P.

      Premise n: Example n is an example that supports claim C.

      Conclusion: Claim P is true.


Argument from by example1
Argument from/by Example

  • Standards of Assessment

    • Standards

      • The more examples, the stronger the argument.

      • The examples must be relevant.

      • The examples must be specific & clearly identified.

      • Counter-examples must be considered.


Argument from authority
Argument from Authority

  • Introduction

    • Defined

    • Use

  • Form

    • Premise 1: Person A is an authority on subject S.

    • Premises 2: Person A makes claim C about subject S.

    • Premises 3: Therefore, C is true.


Argument from authority1
Argument from Authority

  • Assessment

    • Standards

      • The person has sufficient expertise in the subject.

      • The claim is within the expert’s area of expertise.

      • There is an adequate degree of agreement among experts.

      • The expert is not significantly biased.

      • The area of expertise is a legitimate area or discipline.

      • The authority must be properly cited.


Logical consistency general
Logical Consistency(General)

  • Concepts & Method

  • Responding

  • Ethical Relativism, Subjectivism & Nihilism


Consistent application normative
Consistent Application (Normative)

  • Concepts, Assumptions & Method

  • Responding


Reversing the situation ethics
Reversing the Situation(Ethics)

  • Method

  • Considerations

  • Responding


Argument by definition general
Argument by Definition (General)

  • Method

  • Assessing Definitions

  • Responding


Appeal to intuition
Appeal to Intuition

  • Method

  • Responding


Appeal to consequences normative
Appeal to Consequences(Normative)

  • Method

  • Moral Vs. Practical

  • Responding

Step 1: Show that action, policy, etc. X creates Y harms and Z benefits.

Step 2: Weigh and assess Y and Z.

Step 3: Argue that moral assessment is based on the consequences of actions.

Step 4A: If Y outweighs Z, then conclude that X is morally unacceptable.

Step 4B: If Z outweighs Y, then conclude that X is morally acceptable.


Appeal to rights ethics
Appeal to Rights (Ethics)

  • Method

  • Responding

Method 1

Step 1: Argue for right Y.

Step 2: Argue that. X violates (or does not violate) right Y.

Step 3: Conclude that X is not morally acceptable (or is acceptable).

Method 2

Step 1: Argue for right Y.

Step 2: Argue that. X is required by right Y.

Step 3: Conclude that X is morally obligatory.


Mixing norms
Mixing Norms

  • Flawed Method

    • Flawed Step 1: X has status S in normative area Y.

    • Flawed Step 2: Therefore X should have the comparable status to S in normative area Z.

  • Correct Method

    • Step 1: X has status S in normative area Y.

    • Step 2: Premise or Argument connecting area Y and normative area Z.

    • Step 3: Therefore X should have the comparable status to S in normative area Z.

  • Making the Connection

  • Responding


Applying aesthetic principles
Applying Aesthetic Principles

  • Method

  • Sample Principles

  • Responding

  • Art & Non-Art


Applying aesthetic theories
Applying Aesthetic Theories

  • Method

  • Responding


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