Flooding and drought revision
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Flooding and drought Revision – . see s-cool.co.uk A Level G eography. Also – BBC Bitesize , and search for drought. Causes of floods. 6 causes – g lobal warming deforestation tsunamis monsoon ice melt h igh drainage density tides urbanisation

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Flooding and drought Revision –

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Flooding and droughtRevision –

see s-cool.co.uk

A Level

Geography

Also – BBC Bitesize, and search for drought


Causes of floods

6 causes –

  • global warming

  • deforestation

  • tsunamis

  • monsoon

  • ice melt

  • high drainage density

  • tides

  • urbanisation

    Deforestation in detail – infiltration, transpiration, stem flow, runoff, soil enters river.

    Flood hydrograph – what it shows, how it works


Effects of floods

Primary effects

  • Physical damage – Can damage any type of structure, including bridges, cars, buildings, sewerage systems, roadways, and canals.

    Secondary effects

  • Water supplies – Contamination of water. Clean drinking water becomes scarce.

  • Diseases – Unhygienic conditions. Spread of water-borne diseases.

  • Crops and food supplies – Shortage of food crops can be caused due to loss of entire harvest.[4] However, lowlands near rivers depend upon river silt deposited by floods in order to add nutrients to the local soil.

  • Trees – Non-tolerant species can die from suffocation.[5]

  • Transport - Transport links destroyed, so hard to get emergency aid to those who need it.

    Tertiary/long-term effects

  • Economic – Economic hardship, due to: temporary decline in tourism, rebuilding costs, food shortage leading to price increase, etc.


Solutions to flooding – small and large scale

  • the creation of embankments (artificial levees) along the river to increase channel capacity and restrict flood waters - however since 1957, 7,500km of flood embankments have been constructed and yet many were breached in the 1998 floods;

  • constructing flood protection shelters (large buildings raised above the ground) to shelter both people and animals

  • emergency flood warning systems and plans made for organising rescue and relief services;

  • providing emergency medical stores in villages

  • building flood proof storage sheds for grain and other food supplies

  • dam construction upstream and major embankments around Dhaka have been suggested however lack of money has meant that these suggestions have not been taken further.


Case study: Bangladesh (see Geobytes)


Case study: Your country

Causes

Effects

Solutions


Causes of drought

3 causes


Effects of drought

3 effects


Solutions to drought

3 solutions


3 case studies

Place, date, causes and effects

Possible – Dustbowl, Philippines, Horn of Africa


Images

http://www.pupilvision.com/yeareleven/hydrograph.htm

http://geobytesgcse.blogspot.com/2006/12/flooding-in-ledc-1998-floods-in.html


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