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An Introduction to the Police Service 2. Functions, Roles and Organisational Structures . Key Questions. What should be the functions of the police? Whose views influence the way in which ‘policing’ takes place in Britain?

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An Introduction to the Police Service 2

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An introduction to the police service 2 l.jpg

An Introduction to the Police Service 2

Functions, Roles and Organisational Structures

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Key Questions

  • What should be the functions of the police?

  • Whose views influence the way in which ‘policing’ takes place in Britain?

  • Is it possible to arrive at an all encompassing definition of ‘policing’?

  • How is the police structured as an organisation?

  • How might we think about the recent problems associated with ‘the police’?

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‘The Police’: A Definition

  • “those organised forms of order-maintenance, peacekeeping, rule or law enforcement and other forms of investigation and information-brokering-which may involve a conscious exercise of coercive power-undertaken by individuals or organisations, where such activities are viewed by them and/or others as a central defining part of their purpose” Jones,T and Newburn,T (98) Private Security and Public Policing. Oxford, Clarendon

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Peel’s 9 Principles ofPolicing

  • The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.

  • The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions.

  • Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.

  • The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force.

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Peel’s Principles of Policing contd.

  • Police seek and preserve public favour not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.

  • Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient.

  • Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence

  • Police should always direct their action strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary.

  • The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.

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Functions and Roles

  • The prevention of crime

  • The detection of offenders if crime is committed

  • The protection of life and property

  • The preservation of public tranquillity

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The Context of the Role of the Police

  • Legal

  • Sectoral

  • Geographical

  • Spatial

  • Informational

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Peace Keeping or Crime Fighting

  • PK = Discretion, negotiation, informality, proactivity, localised, “Dixon of Dock Green”

  • CF= Centralisation, limited contact with public, paramilitary model, weaponry and other armour, highly visible

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Plural Policing

Specialist Policing Depts

Domestic Violence, Criminal Investigation, Child Abuse Investigation, Economic Crime Unit, Firearms Unit, Tactical Support Unit, Underwater and Search Dept

Providers of Specialist Services/Assistance

Serious and Organised Crime Agency, HM Revenue and Customs, Crime and Disorder Partnerships, Non-Home Office Forces (RAF police,Royal Marines police, RMP, MOD police, Atomic Energy Constabulary, Parks police, MI5, M16

Private Policing Organisations

Security Guards, Private Detective Agencies, Door Supervisors, Private CCTV Equipment

Civilian Policing

Special Constables, Neighbourhood Watch, Police Volunteers, Crimewatch

Municipal Policing and Regulation

Environmental Health Officers, Traffic Wardens, Anti-social behaviour teams, Trading standards, Health and Safety Officers

Partnership Policing

Crime and Disorder Partnerships, Housing Associations, Youth Offending Teams, Drug Action Teams

Source: Grieve, J (07) Policing Sage

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Structures and Organisation 1

  • Local Vs national

    No national police force, 43 separate forces, some degree of collaboration, HQ (management team and specialist and support teams), geographical zones called Basic Command Units (BCUs) are responsible for local policing, decentralised and local, protective services can be national (SOCA)

  • Tripartism (1964 Police Act)

    Home Secretary, Police Authorities, Chief Constable

    Police and Magistrates Court Act 94 and the Police Act 96 required local councillors, magistrates and independent members to comprise the Police Authority. This body appoints the Chief Constable subject to approval from the Home Secretary

  • Managerialism, Economy, Efficiency, Effectiveness

    Value for money, restrictions on budgets, less emphasis on the causes of crime and more on measurement and efficacy, performance objectives, New Public Management

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Structures and Organisation 2

  • HMIC (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary)

    First appointed in 1856, assure standards are achieved and maintained, good practice is disseminated, performance is improved, conduct regular inspections, best value, themes

  • IPCC (Independent Police Complaints Commission)

    Replaced Police Complaints Authority in 2004, secure and review recording, handling and investigation of complaints, investigators have full police powers on duty and have access to premises, documents etc.

  • NPIA (National Police Improvement Agency)

    NDPB that supports police nationally and replaces individual bodies that have hitherto undertaken national roles. E.G. Centrex, supports ‘mission critical’ policing priorities which replaces National Policing Plan which in turn came from Police Reform Act 02, Bichard enquiry/Soham murders

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Philosophies of Policing

  • Peel (Beat policing and Unit Beat policing)

  • Problem-oriented policing

    Herman Goldstein

  • Zero Tolerance policing

    Pioneered by Supt Ray Mallon in Middlesborough

    ‘Broken windows thesis’ Wilson JQ and Kelling GL (82)

  • Total Geographic policing

  • Intelligence led policing

    National Intelligence Model (NIM)

  • Neighbourhood policing

  • Risk management policing

    Ericson, R and Haggerty, K (97)

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Policing and its problems

  • Organisation culture

    Mission, cynicism, suspicion, conservatism, machismo, isolation and solidarity, racial prejudice, pragmatism

  • Race and Diversity

    Lawrence Enquiry/Macpherson Report

  • Gender and Policing

    Women officers and their roles, policing of women victims

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