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Effective Instructional Strategies for Correctional Education Programs

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Effective Instructional Strategies for Correctional Education Programs

Joseph Calvin Gagnon, Ph.D.

George Mason University

Mike Krezmien, M.A.

University of Maryland

Richard Krause

Agenda

- Technology
- Graduated instruction and strategy instruction

Educational Reform:

- Standards-driven reform is the primary approach to assuring today’s high school graduates are internationally competitive
- Prompted by the public dissatisfaction and poor performance by U.S. students on international assessments (McLaughlin, Shepard, & O’Day, 1995), educators, curriculum specialists, and national organizations have focused on development of challenging standards for over a decade.

Educational Reform:

- Assuring all students achieve in math is a national priority (IDEA, 1997; No Child Left Behind Act of 2001)
- Success in math is considered a gateway to many educational and occupational opportunities (Jetter, 1993)

Educational Reform:

- Recent legislation has assisted these efforts and assured that students with disabilities are included, to the maximum extent possible
- Central to this notion of reform is the assertion that all students are, “entitled to instruction that is grounded in a common set of challenging standards” (McLaughlin, 1999, p. 10)

Educational Reform:

- Rigorous standards are especially crucial for students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional disturbances (ED), who are commonly included in the general education environment.
- These students have historically been provided a less rigorous curriculum with IEP goals that:
- Focus on computation (Shriner, Kim, Thurlow, & Ysseldyke, 1993)
- Have minimal linkage to long-term general education outcomes (Nolet & McLaughlin, 2000; Sands, Adams, & Stout, 1995; Smith, 1990)

Educational Reform:

- Some states require students to pass assessments with open-ended problem solving tasks

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Computer/videodisc based
- Effective instruction and instructional design variables
- Anchored instruction
- Web based instruction (WBI)
- Calculators
- Standard
- Graphing

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Technology-based instructional approaches can significantly affect student learning and acquisition of higher-level math concepts; particularly when embedded within real-world problem solving tasks (Maccini & Gagnon, in press)
- This approach relies on the use of a computer, calculator, or other specialized systems as the mode of instruction (Vergason & Anderegg, 1997)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Technology-based instruction can:
- Assist teachers in moving away from a focus on memorization and routine manipulation of numbers in formulas and toward instruction and activities embedded in real-world problems (Bottge & Hasselbring, 1993)
- Promote active student learning (Kelly, Gersten, & Carnine, 1990)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Embedding problem solving information within a real world context helps:
- Activate student conceptual knowledge when presented with a real-life problem solving situation (Gagne, Yekovich, & Yekovich, 1993)
- Improve student motivation, participation, and generalization (Palloway & Patton, 1997)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

Teacher Quote:

“I incorporate fun activities such as timing a wave, weighing bananas, and counting chips in a cookie to acquire data. Students are included in groups and usually have successful experiences with others as they do the activities”

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Anchored instruction is one such example of embedding problem solving situations in a real-life situation via interactive video-disc instruction (see Bottge & Hasselbring, 1993)
- Students with special needs may need additional support to benefit from enhanced anchored instruction
- Additional review of the videodisc
- Cooperative learning strategies (Bottge et al., 2002)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- However, “Rather than capitalizing on the insights and motivation that students bring to the classroom, schools may actually be wasting valuable time by withholding more authentic and motivating problems until ‘prerequisite’ skills are acquired” (Bottge et al., 2001, p. 312)
- It is effective to use videodisc-based interventions that embed interesting and age-appropriate problem-solving situations (Bottge, 1999; Bottge & Hasselbring, 1993; Bottge et al., 2001; Bottge et al., 2002)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

Recommendations:

- Incorporate di (e.g., model, guided practice, review, feedback) within technology-based interventions
- Incorporate effective instructional design variables within technology-based instruction to reduce student confusion and mathematical errors

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Discrimination: Skills are introduced, practiced, and mixed with other types of problems. Specific instruction and remediation provide for discrimination
- Range of Examples: Students introduced to fractions less than one, improper fractions, and provided strategies for reading and writing both

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Explicit Strategy Teaching: Students provided explicit problem solving strategies
- Computer software should incorporate a wide range of examples and nonexamples into instruction for discrimination practice and generalization

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- One example of a series that uses technology, the noted instructional design features, and teaching practices recommended by NCTM is:
- The Systems Impact Direct Instruction videodisc mathematics programs (DIV) (Mastering Fractions, Mastering Decimals and Percents, Mastering Equations, Roots, and Exponents, Mastering Ratios and Word Problems, and Mastering Informal Geometry) (Scott Foresman, 1991)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

Recommendations:

- Incorporate technology-based tutorial programs that embed basic math skills and higher order thinking within problem-solving situations
- This allows students to practice remedial skills within context
- For example, it is recommended that computers be available to students with LD for tutorial assistance

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

Example:

- The Hot Dog Stand and Geometric SuperSupposer(both programs are available from Sunburst Communications at http://www.sunburst.com/index/html)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

Example:

- The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury consists of 12 video-disc based adventures (plus video based analogs, extensions and teaching tips) that focus on mathematical problem finding and problem solving
- Each adventure is designed from the perspective of the standards recommended by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Each adventure provides multiple opportunities for problem solving, reasoning, communication and making connections to other areas such as science, social studies, literature and history (NCTM, 1989; 1991)
- Jasper adventures are designed for students in grades 5 and up
- Each videodisc contains a short (approximately 17 minute) video adventure that ends in a complex challenge

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- The adventures are designed like detective novels where all the data necessary to solve the adventure (plus additional data that are not relevant to the solution) are embedded in the story
- Jasper adventures also contain "embedded teaching" episodes that provide models of particular approaches to solving problems

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Geometry
- Blueprint for Success, The Right Angle, The Great Circle Race
- Algebra
- Working Smarter, Kim’s Komet, The General is Missing

http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu/projects/funded/jasper/Jasperhome.html

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- The Jasper series is currently being used in classrooms in every state in the U. S., as well as in classrooms in Canada and China. Jasper is published and distributed by LEARNING, Inc., a division of Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

Web-based Instruction:

- A promising approach is the TRIP project (Christle et al., 2001), which:
- Extends the principles of anchored instruction and contextualized learning (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1990)
- Includes Web-based instruction (WBI) within a universally designed environment
- Students work collaboratively
- Research is needed to fully realize the effects of WBI, but the future appears promising

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Limitations to the use of technology:
- The review was limited to 11 published articles that met all criteria
- Although 73% (n = 8) of the studies determined significant treatment effects, three of the studies noted that the proficiency levels of students with disabilities fell below the established criterion for learning of 80%

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Further, of the articles that obtained significant findings, only 45% (n = 5) of the interventions directly programmed for maintenance and 55%

(n = 6) programmed for generalization

- The generalizability of the findings may also be of concern because no information was available on new technologies (e.g., DVD and streaming video)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

Calculators:

- In one study, calculator use was the most prevalent adaptation noted by teachers Maccini & Gagnon, 2002)
- Consistent with Etlinger and Ogletree (1982), teacher responses involved two primary categories:

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- The "practical" function: The use of calculators to complete tedious calculations, save time, increase student motivation, and to decrease math anxiety
- The "pedagogical" function: Relates to similarities between calculators, textbooks, and manipulatives in that each enhances student understanding and competence in mathematics

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- These classifications are consistent with the five primary functions of calculators as stated by the NCTM
- Within the practical classification, NCTM identifies the use of calculators to
- Perform tedious computations that arise when working with real data in problem solving situations
- Concentrate on the problem-solving process rather than calculations associated with problems
- Gain access to mathematics beyond their level of computational skill

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Teachers noted, Daily use of calculators to eliminate arithmetic phobia (Maccini & Gagnon, 2002)
- Use of calculators to increase motivation has also been noted by researchers (Deshler, Ellis, Lenz, 1996)

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- The pedagogical function coincides with two other uses identified by NCTM
- To explore, develop, and reinforce concepts including estimation, computation, approximation, and properties
- To experiment with math ideas and discover patterns

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Teachers noted using calculators as an aid for students to solve problems,
- Students use calculators only after attempting to solve problems
- Students use calculators to help solve problems, but still must show an understanding by listing their steps

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Calculators can be used to enhance learning by helping students to visualize connections between symbolic and graphic solutions (Milou, Gambler, & Moyer, 1997; Demana & Waits, 1990), teachers noted,
- Students use calculators or graphing calculators for Algebra II

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Salend and Hoffstetter (1996) assert the importance of:
- Training students to use calculators
- Using an overhead projector to teach this skill
- Locating and describing the function of each key to students
- Providing examples of calculator use

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Students should be provided opportunities to practice calculations, including estimation skills and reviewing answers obtained through calculator use

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Another important category of teacher responses related to teaching students to use calculators,
- I do extensive work with students on how to use the calculator
- I use an overhead calculator to assist with VAKT [i.e., visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile learning]"

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Based on teacher responses, the literature, and NCTM position statements (1998) the following recommendations for teachers are noted:
- Model calculator application
- Use calculators in computation, problem solving, concept development, pattern recognition, data analysis, and graphing
- Integrate calculator use in assessment and evaluation

Real World Problem Solving and Technology:

- Remain current with state-of-the-art technology
- Explore and develop new ways to use calculators to support instruction and assessment

Concrete-Semiconcrete-Abstract Instructional Sequence (C-S-A)

Bruner’s structure-oriented theory of learning:

Enactive mode (e.g., the “doing” phase” - using concrete objects to represent problems - concrete representations)

Iconic mode (e.g., the “seeing phase” visualizing representations of the problem - semiconcrete representations)

Symbolic mode (e.g., using abstract symbols to represent the problem - abstract representations)

C-S-A:

Research: Why teach for meaning?

Students with learning problems have problems with:

- classifying objects or ideas
- finding logical relationships/making logical deductions
- generating hypotheses choosing among alternative routes

C-S-A:

- Empirical studies have validated CSA use with students with high incidence disabilities for:
- Whole number operations
- Word problems
- Place value
- Introductory algebra skills

C-S-A:

Recommendations for Practice:

Teach for meaning prior to abstract representations

Examples:

- Guidelines for using manipulatives - In the Focus journal p. 11
- Addition Sample Problem - In the TEC journal p. 14

C-S-A:

Solve: 3a + 2a + 5 = 20

Concrete: Use paper plates and beans to solve:

1 bean = 1 unit 1 paper plate = variable “a” =

+ + • • • • • = • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

= • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

= 3 Source: Allsopp (1999, p. 78)

C-S-A:

Solve: 3a + 2a + 5 = 20

Semiconcrete: Use pictures of plates and beans to solve

– = # less than 10; = tens variable “a” =

+ +– – – – – =

+ +– – – – – =

+ +– – – – – = – – – – – – – – – –

+ = – – – – –

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

C-S-A:

Solve: 3a + 2a + 5 = 20

Abstract:

5a + 5 = 20

5a + 5 - 5 = 20 - 5

5a = 15

a = 3

Check:

5(3) + 5 = 20; 20 = 20 Yes, it checks.

Strategy Instruction:

Strategy instruction in math, such as a first letter Mnemonic strategy, is used to help students memorize and recall effective problem solving skills

- For example, the steps in the strategy can help remind students to read the problem carefully, to obtain a whole picture of the problem (problem representation), to solve the solution, and to check your answers (problem solution)

Strategy Instruction:

Strategy Instruction Can Include:

- Structured worksheets/cue cards to help students remember problem solving steps or strategies for solving problems
- Mnemonics to help students recall problem solving steps or important facts

Research:

Strategy instruction that incorporated a first-letter mnemonic and structured worksheets helped students with LD learn prealgebra skills and concepts (Maccini & Hughes, 2000)

Strategy Instruction:

Recommendations for Practice:

Refer to the “STAR Strategy Steps” as an example of how to teach both problem representation and problem solution using a first letter mnemonic strategy

Example:

1. STAR - See article in TEC journal, p. 10 and instructional steps, p. 12

Strategy Instruction:

Example of a Structured Worksheet:

Strategy Instruction:

Example 2: CAP Strategy (for Abstract Application)

C = Combine like terms

A = Ask yourself, “ How can I isolate the variable?”

P = Put the value of the variable in the initial equation, and check if the equation is “balanced”

Strategy Instruction:

Solve: 3a + 2a + 5 = 20

C = 5a + 5 = 20

A: “To isolate the variable, I need to subtract 5 from both sides” 5a + 5 - 5 = 20 - 5; 5a = 15;

a = 3.

P: 5(3) + 5 = 20; 20 = 20 Yes, it checks. Allsopp (1999)

Strategy Instruction

Strategy instruction in math, such as a first letter mnemonic

strategy, is used to help students memorize and recall

effective problem solving skills.

- For example, the steps in the strategy can help remind students to read the problem carefully, to obtain a whole picture of the problem (representation), to solve the solution, and to check your answers.

Strategy Instruction

Recommendations for Practice:

- Guidelines for using a first-letter mnemonic strategy:
- Model how to use the strategy and the purpose of the strategy.
- Model each letter and relate it to the math task (e.g., solving equations)

Strategy Instruction

- Model application of the strategy and relate students’ prior understanding of the math task(s).
- Provide cue cards of the strategy to aid memory, posters on the wall, etc.
- Provide rapid-fire-verbal-rehearsal (randomly call on students, increase pace of questioning students).

Strategy Instruction

Example: CAP Strategy (for Abstract Application)

C = Combine like terms

A = Ask yourself, “ How can I isolate the variable?”

P = Put the value of the variable in the initial equation, and check if the equation is “balanced”

Solve: 3a + 2a + 5 = 20

C = 5a + 5 = 20

A: “To isolate the variable, I need to subtract 5 from both sides” 5a + 5 - 5 = 20 - 5; 5a = 15; a = 3.

P: 5(3) + 5 = 20; 20 = 20 Yes, it checks.

Instructional Strategy Steps

Step 1: Provide an Advance Organizer

Provide an advance organizer to: a) connect new information to previously learned skills, b) state the new skill to-be-learned, and c) provide the rationale introducing the new topic.

Instructional Strategy Steps

Step 2: Provide Teacher Modeling

Provide teacher “modeling” via two methods. First, “think aloud” to students while introducing a strategy. Then, fade teacher prompts while involving students in application of the strategy. For example, following the teacher model, students answer questions and write down their responses using the graphic organizers or structured worksheets.

Instructional Strategy Steps

Step 3: Provide Guided Practice

Provide opportunities for students to practice the new strategy with teacher assistance. Fade teacher assistance until students can perform the task independently.

Instructional Strategy Steps:

Step 4: Provide Student Independent Practice

Assess student mastery of the skills by providing problems without teacher prompts/assistance.

Step 5: Provide Feedback

Provide positive and corrective feedback throughout the lesson via five steps:

a) document student performance (e.g., calculate the percent correct)

b) target error patterns/incorrect answers

Instructional Strategy Steps

c) reteach if necessary

d) provide student practice with similar problems and monitor student performance

e) close with positive feedback

Step 6: Program for Generalization

Provide prompts or questions to promote generalization to other:

a) problem solving situations

b) content areas

c) real-world situations

Structured Worksheets/Prompt Cards, and Graphic Organizers

Structured worksheets, prompt cards, and graphic

organizers with the strategy steps are used as visual

prompts and organizers for students to use as they

solve problems (until they can recall the steps

without the card).

Recommendations for Practice:

- Provide teacher modeling of the self-questions that are on the structured worksheets/prompt cards.
- Have students practice the self-questions while solving problems. Provide corrective and positive feedback and fade assistance.

Refer to the “Growing Patterns”, “Structured Worksheet” for examples of activities

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