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Women & Minority Health. Dr. Dawn M. Upchurch PH 150 Fall ‘04. Overview of Lecture. Short review of HP 2010 Concept of Social Stratification Social stratification and health Women’s health Gender paradox Key issues in women’s health “Minority” health Key issues

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women minority health

Women & Minority Health

Dr. Dawn M. Upchurch

PH 150

Fall ‘04

overview of lecture
Overview of Lecture
  • Short review of HP 2010
  • Concept of Social Stratification
    • Social stratification and health
  • Women’s health
    • Gender paradox
    • Key issues in women’s health
  • “Minority” health
    • Key issues
  • Ways of ameliorating health disparities
healthy people 2010
Healthy People 2010
  • Two overarching goals:
    • Eliminate health disparities
    • Increase quality & years of healthy life
  • Objectives organized into 28 “Focus Areas”
  • Each objective has “Leading Health Indicators”
    • Importance of health promotion & disease prevention
what are health disparities
What are “health disparities”?
  • Mortality
    • Varies by gender
    • Varies by race/ethnicity
    • Varies by other sociodemographic factors
  • Morbidity
    • Varies by gender
    • Varies by race/ethnicity
    • Varies by other sociodemographc factors
explanations for health disparities
Explanations for Health Disparities
  • Theory of “Social Stratification”
    • Society “stratified” by several sociodemographic characteristics
      • Gender
      • Age
      • Race/ethnicity
      • SES
      • Others?
    • Stratification: Differential access to resources
theory of social stratification
Theory of Social Stratification
  • All known societies have inequalities
  • What are social “resources”?
    • Wealth
    • Power
    • Prestige
  • Rules of allocation:
    • Variable distribution of goods/resources across various positions in social structure
    • Most privileged enjoy disproportionately
  • What is “social structure”?
types of social stratification
Types of Social Stratification
  • Degree of inequality of resources
    • Dispersion
    • Concentration
  • Degree of rigidity
    • High: “social closure”
    • Low: “social mobility”
  • Ascriptive vs. Achieved
    • Ascriptive: Traits present at birth influence subsequent social standing
    • Achieved: Traits acquired over lifetime influences subsequent social standing
how is u s society stratified
How is U.S. Society Stratified?
  • Both ascriptive & achieved stratification processes
    • Ascriptive
      • Gender
      • Race/ethnicity
      • Nativity, culture
      • SES of family
    • Achievement
      • Education, etc.
concept of status attainment
Concept of Status Attainment
  • Social status individuals achieve over their lives
    • Key Indicator: Educational attainment
    • Concept of “human capital”
  • Examples of status attainment process
    • “Intergenerational transfer” of status
    • Individual status attainment over life course
key sociodemographic characteristics associated with stratification health
Key Sociodemographic Characteristics Associated with Stratification & Health
  • Age
    • Biological & social components
  • Gender (Sex)
    • Biological & social components
  • Race & ethnicity
    • Biological & social components
    • Social meaning of race & ethnicity changes
  • Socioeconomic status (SES)
  • Contingent effects of age, gender, race/ethnicity & SES on health
women s health gender paradox
Women’s Health – Gender Paradox

“Women get sicker, men die quicker.”

  • What does this mean?
  • Women
    • Higher morbidity rates than men
    • Lower mortality rates than men
  • Men
    • Lower morbidity rates than women
    • Higher mortality rates than women
  • But, higher morbidity should predict higher mortality – What’s happening?
gender paradox
Gender Paradox
  • Gender differences in health care seeking behaviors
    • Women more likely to go to HCP early & often vs. men
      • Visits are “counted” in morbidity rates
    • Men more likely to wait and/or not go to HCP
      • So, lower morbidity rates
      • But, wait until conditions more severe  increased risk of mortality
  • So, both “true” & “artifact” differences
race ethnicity ses health
Race/ethnicity, SES, & Health
  • Gender, race/ethnicity, & SES associated with one another
  • Distribution of risk factors & resources are shaped by the conditions under which people live & work.
  • What are some of the explanations for the observed race/ethnic & SES differences in health?
factors associated with race ethnic ses differences in health
Factors Associated with Race/ethnic & SES Differences in Health
  • Medical care
    • Differential use of preventive care
  • Health behaviors
    • Unhealthy behaviors account for 50% of deaths in US
  • Environmental conditions
    • Working conditions, environmental exposures
  • Personality
    • Self esteem; mastery; fatalism
  • Early life conditions
reducing health disparities
Reducing Health Disparities
  • Intersection of Research, Policy, & Program

Policy

Research

Program

reducing health disparities1
Reducing Health Disparities
  • National Public Health Agenda
    • National Health Policies & Programs
    • Healthy People 2010
  • State & Local
    • Policies & Programs
  • Targeted Populations
    • Policies & Programs
  • Program Development & Evaluation
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