Marine Resources
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Marine Resources. UN Convention on the Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS). Coastal jurisdiction 12 n. miles Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 200 n. miles 40% of ocean is under coastal control Mineral & fishing rights Pollution regulation responsibility Free passage for shipping

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Marine Resources

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Marine Resources


UN Convention on the Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS)

  • Coastal jurisdiction 12 n. miles

  • Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 200 n. miles

    • 40% of ocean is under coastal control

      • Mineral & fishing rights

      • Pollution regulation responsibility

  • Free passage for shipping

  • International Seabed Authority – regulates seabed mining


EEZs of the world


EEZ of United States


Fisheries

  • Fish provide 15% of human protein consumption

  • One billion people rely on fish as their main source of animal proteins

  • Dependence on fish is higher in coastal areas

  • Some small island nations depend on fish almost exclusively

  • Another 35 million tons are harvested from aquaculture


Primary productivity and is very important in determining fish carrying capacity

Nitrogen influx is the main limiting factor


Increasing fisheries


By-catch

Species caught incidentally

  • Other fish species

    • As much as ¼ the total catch

    • 20 - 40,000,000 tons of by-catch a year

  • Turtles

  • Seabirds(e.g. Albatrosses)

  • Dolphins

    • Tuna fishery & dolphins

  • Driftnets


Mariculture

  • 37% of total world fishery

  • Fish

  • Crustaceans

    • Shrimp and prawn most successful

  • Bivalves (e.g. oysters)

    • Also successful

  • Algae

    • Mainly seaweeds

      BUT there are problems…


Mariculture

  • Sewage pollution

  • Chemical treatments

  • Antibiotics

  • Escapes of non-native species

  • Parasites (sea lice)

  • Marine mammal conflicts

    • Shooting seals

    • Acoustic Harassment Devices & cetaceans


Energy from oceans

Advantages

  • Relatively non-polluting

  • Huge potential

    • Amount of energy available greater than fossil fuels or uranium

  • Renewable

  • Largely reliant on heat stored in oceans & atmosphere – not directly from sun

  • Readily available along coasts


Power from

  • Offshore winds

  • Currents – 2000 MW off Florida alone

  • Waves

  • Tides – only one being successfully exploited

  • Thermal energy (OTEC)


Current power


Wave power station


Potential Wave Power Hotspots


La Rance Tidal Power Plant


Potential Tidal Power Hotspots


Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

  • Warm water near the surface heats a fluid (e.g. liquid propane or ammonia)

  • Liquid turns to gas – increase volume of gas turns a turbine

  • Cold water from the deep ocean cools down the fluid

  • Fluid become a liquid etc. etc.


OTEC system


Geological Resources

Petroleum

  • 95% of the economic value of non-living marine resources

  • Offshore about 30% of total world production (started in 1930s)

  • Likely to increase in future

    • Esp. Arctic, Asia, W. Africa & Brazil

  • Deeper ocean to be exploited


Geological Resources

Gas Hydrates

  • Composed of water and natural gas (e.g. Methane hydrate)

  • Occur under permafrost on land and under ocean floor

  • High pressure and cold temperatures trap gas in water crystal lattice

  • Created when bacteria breakdown organic matter in seabed sediments (creating methane & some ethane & propane)


Amount of organic carbon in Earth reservoirs

Other category includes peat, soil & living organisms


Geological Resources

  • Sand and gravel

    • 2nd to petroleum

  • Phosphorite(sedimentary rock)

    • Found at depths of <300m – usually associated with upwellings

    • Not currently mined but could be used to produce phosphate fertilizer

    • Some muds up to 18% content - also nodules (25%)


Geological Resources

  • Metal sulfides

    • Rich deposits of Cu, Pb, Zn & Ag

    • Found near plate boundaries

    • Metal enriched hot water exiting boundary meets cold seal water – sulfides precipitate

  • Manganese nodules

    • Discovered in 1872, scattered in deep ocean

    • Contain Mn & Fe (& Cu, Ni & Co)


Divergent and convergent plates and metallic sulfides


Chemical Resources

Freshwater from desalination

  • Distillation(water vapor boiled out of seawater - but a lot of heat needed)

  • Electrolysis(Na+ & Cl- are removed from water by means of charged electrodes)

  • Reverse osmosis(water pumped in at high pressure forcing water through a semi-permeable membrane - which holds back salts etc)

  • Freeze separation(ice 70% lower salinity than seawater)


Reverse osmosis


Chemical Resources

Evaporative salts – salts remaining when water content of seawater evaporates

  • Gypsum – used in plaster of Paris and gypsum board (sheet rock)

  • Halite– table salt


Pharmaceutical drugs

  • Antibiotics

  • Anti-inflammatory

  • Anti-viral

  • Anti-tumor

  • Anti-cancer


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