Marine Resources
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Marine Resources. UN Convention on the Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS). Coastal jurisdiction 12 n. miles Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 200 n. miles 40% of ocean is under coastal control Mineral & fishing rights Pollution regulation responsibility Free passage for shipping

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Marine Resources

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Marine resources

Marine Resources


Un convention on the law of the sea unclos

UN Convention on the Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS)

  • Coastal jurisdiction 12 n. miles

  • Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 200 n. miles

    • 40% of ocean is under coastal control

      • Mineral & fishing rights

      • Pollution regulation responsibility

  • Free passage for shipping

  • International Seabed Authority – regulates seabed mining


Eezs of the world

EEZs of the world


Eez of united states

EEZ of United States


Fisheries

Fisheries

  • Fish provide 15% of human protein consumption

  • One billion people rely on fish as their main source of animal proteins

  • Dependence on fish is higher in coastal areas

  • Some small island nations depend on fish almost exclusively

  • Another 35 million tons are harvested from aquaculture


Primary productivity and is very important in determining fish carrying capacity

Primary productivity and is very important in determining fish carrying capacity

Nitrogen influx is the main limiting factor


Marine resources

Increasing fisheries


By catch

By-catch

Species caught incidentally

  • Other fish species

    • As much as ¼ the total catch

    • 20 - 40,000,000 tons of by-catch a year

  • Turtles

  • Seabirds(e.g. Albatrosses)

  • Dolphins

    • Tuna fishery & dolphins

  • Driftnets


Mariculture

Mariculture

  • 37% of total world fishery

  • Fish

  • Crustaceans

    • Shrimp and prawn most successful

  • Bivalves (e.g. oysters)

    • Also successful

  • Algae

    • Mainly seaweeds

      BUT there are problems…


Mariculture1

Mariculture

  • Sewage pollution

  • Chemical treatments

  • Antibiotics

  • Escapes of non-native species

  • Parasites (sea lice)

  • Marine mammal conflicts

    • Shooting seals

    • Acoustic Harassment Devices & cetaceans


Energy from oceans

Energy from oceans

Advantages

  • Relatively non-polluting

  • Huge potential

    • Amount of energy available greater than fossil fuels or uranium

  • Renewable

  • Largely reliant on heat stored in oceans & atmosphere – not directly from sun

  • Readily available along coasts


Power from

Power from

  • Offshore winds

  • Currents – 2000 MW off Florida alone

  • Waves

  • Tides – only one being successfully exploited

  • Thermal energy (OTEC)


Marine resources

Current power


Marine resources

Wave power station


Marine resources

Potential Wave Power Hotspots


Marine resources

La Rance Tidal Power Plant


Marine resources

Potential Tidal Power Hotspots


Marine resources

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

  • Warm water near the surface heats a fluid (e.g. liquid propane or ammonia)

  • Liquid turns to gas – increase volume of gas turns a turbine

  • Cold water from the deep ocean cools down the fluid

  • Fluid become a liquid etc. etc.


Marine resources

OTEC system


Geological resources

Geological Resources

Petroleum

  • 95% of the economic value of non-living marine resources

  • Offshore about 30% of total world production (started in 1930s)

  • Likely to increase in future

    • Esp. Arctic, Asia, W. Africa & Brazil

  • Deeper ocean to be exploited


Geological resources1

Geological Resources

Gas Hydrates

  • Composed of water and natural gas (e.g. Methane hydrate)

  • Occur under permafrost on land and under ocean floor

  • High pressure and cold temperatures trap gas in water crystal lattice

  • Created when bacteria breakdown organic matter in seabed sediments (creating methane & some ethane & propane)


Marine resources

Amount of organic carbon in Earth reservoirs

Other category includes peat, soil & living organisms


Geological resources2

Geological Resources

  • Sand and gravel

    • 2nd to petroleum

  • Phosphorite(sedimentary rock)

    • Found at depths of <300m – usually associated with upwellings

    • Not currently mined but could be used to produce phosphate fertilizer

    • Some muds up to 18% content - also nodules (25%)


Geological resources3

Geological Resources

  • Metal sulfides

    • Rich deposits of Cu, Pb, Zn & Ag

    • Found near plate boundaries

    • Metal enriched hot water exiting boundary meets cold seal water – sulfides precipitate

  • Manganese nodules

    • Discovered in 1872, scattered in deep ocean

    • Contain Mn & Fe (& Cu, Ni & Co)


Marine resources

Divergent and convergent plates and metallic sulfides


Chemical resources

Chemical Resources

Freshwater from desalination

  • Distillation(water vapor boiled out of seawater - but a lot of heat needed)

  • Electrolysis(Na+ & Cl- are removed from water by means of charged electrodes)

  • Reverse osmosis(water pumped in at high pressure forcing water through a semi-permeable membrane - which holds back salts etc)

  • Freeze separation(ice 70% lower salinity than seawater)


Reverse osmosis

Reverse osmosis


Chemical resources1

Chemical Resources

Evaporative salts – salts remaining when water content of seawater evaporates

  • Gypsum – used in plaster of Paris and gypsum board (sheet rock)

  • Halite– table salt


Pharmaceutical drugs

Pharmaceutical drugs

  • Antibiotics

  • Anti-inflammatory

  • Anti-viral

  • Anti-tumor

  • Anti-cancer


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