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Marine Resources. UN Convention on the Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS). Coastal jurisdiction 12 n. miles Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 200 n. miles 40% of ocean is under coastal control Mineral & fishing rights Pollution regulation responsibility Free passage for shipping

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Un convention on the law of the sea unclos
UN Convention on the Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS)

  • Coastal jurisdiction 12 n. miles

  • Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 200 n. miles

    • 40% of ocean is under coastal control

      • Mineral & fishing rights

      • Pollution regulation responsibility

  • Free passage for shipping

  • International Seabed Authority – regulates seabed mining




Fisheries
Fisheries

  • Fish provide 15% of human protein consumption

  • One billion people rely on fish as their main source of animal proteins

  • Dependence on fish is higher in coastal areas

  • Some small island nations depend on fish almost exclusively

  • Another 35 million tons are harvested from aquaculture


Primary productivity and is very important in determining fish carrying capacity
Primary productivity and is very important in determining fish carrying capacity

Nitrogen influx is the main limiting factor



By catch
By-catch fish

Species caught incidentally

  • Other fish species

    • As much as ¼ the total catch

    • 20 - 40,000,000 tons of by-catch a year

  • Turtles

  • Seabirds(e.g. Albatrosses)

  • Dolphins

    • Tuna fishery & dolphins

  • Driftnets


Mariculture
Mariculture fish

  • 37% of total world fishery

  • Fish

  • Crustaceans

    • Shrimp and prawn most successful

  • Bivalves (e.g. oysters)

    • Also successful

  • Algae

    • Mainly seaweeds

      BUT there are problems…


Mariculture1
Mariculture fish

  • Sewage pollution

  • Chemical treatments

  • Antibiotics

  • Escapes of non-native species

  • Parasites (sea lice)

  • Marine mammal conflicts

    • Shooting seals

    • Acoustic Harassment Devices & cetaceans


Energy from oceans
Energy from oceans fish

Advantages

  • Relatively non-polluting

  • Huge potential

    • Amount of energy available greater than fossil fuels or uranium

  • Renewable

  • Largely reliant on heat stored in oceans & atmosphere – not directly from sun

  • Readily available along coasts


Power from
Power from fish

  • Offshore winds

  • Currents – 2000 MW off Florida alone

  • Waves

  • Tides – only one being successfully exploited

  • Thermal energy (OTEC)







Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) fish

  • Warm water near the surface heats a fluid (e.g. liquid propane or ammonia)

  • Liquid turns to gas – increase volume of gas turns a turbine

  • Cold water from the deep ocean cools down the fluid

  • Fluid become a liquid etc. etc.



Geological resources
Geological Resources fish

Petroleum

  • 95% of the economic value of non-living marine resources

  • Offshore about 30% of total world production (started in 1930s)

  • Likely to increase in future

    • Esp. Arctic, Asia, W. Africa & Brazil

  • Deeper ocean to be exploited


Geological resources1
Geological Resources fish

Gas Hydrates

  • Composed of water and natural gas (e.g. Methane hydrate)

  • Occur under permafrost on land and under ocean floor

  • High pressure and cold temperatures trap gas in water crystal lattice

  • Created when bacteria breakdown organic matter in seabed sediments (creating methane & some ethane & propane)


Amount of organic carbon in Earth reservoirs fish

Other category includes peat, soil & living organisms


Geological resources2
Geological Resources fish

  • Sand and gravel

    • 2nd to petroleum

  • Phosphorite(sedimentary rock)

    • Found at depths of <300m – usually associated with upwellings

    • Not currently mined but could be used to produce phosphate fertilizer

    • Some muds up to 18% content - also nodules (25%)


Geological resources3
Geological Resources fish

  • Metal sulfides

    • Rich deposits of Cu, Pb, Zn & Ag

    • Found near plate boundaries

    • Metal enriched hot water exiting boundary meets cold seal water – sulfides precipitate

  • Manganese nodules

    • Discovered in 1872, scattered in deep ocean

    • Contain Mn & Fe (& Cu, Ni & Co)



Chemical resources
Chemical Resources fish

Freshwater from desalination

  • Distillation(water vapor boiled out of seawater - but a lot of heat needed)

  • Electrolysis(Na+ & Cl- are removed from water by means of charged electrodes)

  • Reverse osmosis(water pumped in at high pressure forcing water through a semi-permeable membrane - which holds back salts etc)

  • Freeze separation(ice 70% lower salinity than seawater)



Chemical resources1
Chemical Resources fish

Evaporative salts – salts remaining when water content of seawater evaporates

  • Gypsum – used in plaster of Paris and gypsum board (sheet rock)

  • Halite– table salt


Pharmaceutical drugs
Pharmaceutical drugs fish

  • Antibiotics

  • Anti-inflammatory

  • Anti-viral

  • Anti-tumor

  • Anti-cancer


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