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How an SME Might Assemble a KB from Components PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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How an SME Might Assemble a KB from Components. Bruce Porter (University of Texas) Peter Clark (Boeing) and Colleagues. Desiderata for Rapid Knowledge Formation. Representations must be simple and clear Input knowledge must be highly leveraged

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How an SME Might Assemble a KB from Components

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How an sme might assemble a kb from components l.jpg

How an SME Might Assemblea KB from Components

Bruce Porter (University of Texas)

Peter Clark (Boeing)

and Colleagues


Desiderata for rapid knowledge formation l.jpg

Desiderata for Rapid Knowledge Formation

Representations must be simple and clear

Input knowledge must be highly leveraged

Question-answering must be a constructive process


Building representations from reusable components l.jpg

Building Representations from Reusable Components

  • Knowledge engineers do the following:

    • build a component library containing high-level and mid-level core concepts

    • develop methods for combining components

  • SME’s build knowledge bases by combining and customizing the components.


Microbiology example how a virus invades a cell l.jpg

Microbiology Example: How a virus invades a Cell

Some viruses invade a cell in the following way. First, the virus penetrates the cell membrane by endocytosis, which creates an intracellular vesicle containing the virus. Then, the vesicle fuses with a lysosome of the cell, thereby transferring the virus into the cytoplasm of the cell.

Once inside the lysosome, the virus’s protein coat is degraded by the lysosome’s acid. Finally, the virus’s DNA is released into the cytoplasm near the cell’s replication machinery.


How might an sme enter this knowledge l.jpg

How might an SME enter this knowledge?

  • As a dialogue with a knowledgeable system, using a good Graphical User Interface

  • With terse statements that are interpreted and expanded by the system.


Leveraging input knowledge l.jpg

Leveraging Input Knowledge

  • SME: “a virus invades a cell.”

  • System: Therefore,

from Enter:

Initially, the virus is outside but near the cell.

from Invade and the structure of Cell’s:

The virus penetrates the cell membrane,

then enters the cytoplasm of the cell.

from Penetrate, a component of Invade:

Once inside the cytoplasm, the virus is

protected by the cell membrane.

etc.

Which inferences are worthwhile?

This is governed by subsequent input and questions from the SME.


Slide7 l.jpg

SME: A virus invades a cell.

System: A virusinvades a cell. OK.

This is the first slide in a series

showing a hypothetical dialogue

between an SME and a

knowledgeable system.

Although this dialogue manager

and interface have not been implemented,

the domain knowledge presented here

has been fully encoded in KM

and the knowledge base is now able to

answer a variety of test questions,

which we’ll see later.

  • This slide illustrates the system’s

  • acknowledgement of the SME’s

  • input. The system underlines the

  • terms that it “understands”.

  • “OK” means that the SME’s input

  • is sensible, in that:

  • the terms are in the system’s lexicon

  • the terms are used properly


Slide8 l.jpg

SME: A virus invades a cell.

System: A virusinvades a cell.

The cell is invaded by the virus.

Structurally, it consists of a cell

membrane, which contains the

cytoplasm, which contains lysosomes

and DNA.

This illustrates the result

of the SME’s double-click

(“tell me more”) on the

terms virus and cell.

After reviewing the

descriptions, the SME

elects to remove them from the

display, to avoid clutter.

Initially the virus is outside the cell.

Afterwards, it’s in the cell’s cytoplasm.

Structurally, it consists of a protein coat

surrounding a DNA protein.


Slide9 l.jpg

SME: A virus invades a cell.

System: A virusinvades a cell. OK.

The virusfirst penetratesthe

cell membrane, then it enters the

cytoplasm of the cell, then it

takes control of the cell.

This illustrates the SME’s

double-click on “invade”,

asking for more detail on

that event.

The underlined terms can be

further expanded,

as we’ll see.


Slide10 l.jpg

SME: A virus invades a cell.

System: A virusinvades a cell. OK.

The virusfirst penetratesthe

cell membrane, then it enters the

cytoplasm of the cell, then it

takes control of the cell.

This illustrates the SME’s

double-click on “penetrate”

and the resulting display of detail.

Then, the SME supplements the

description to say that the

penetrate is “by means of”

Endocytosis.

Then, the system acknowledges

the new input

by echoing its interpretation of it,

and the SME confirms the details of endocytosis,

then removes this detail from the display.

The virus penetrates the

cell membrane of the cell.

SME: This is by means of endocytosis.

The virus penetrates the

cell membrane by means of

endocytosis. OK.

The cell creates a vesicle and

draws the virus into the vesicle.


Slide11 l.jpg

SME: A virus invades a cell.

System: A virusinvades a cell. OK.

The virusfirst penetratesthe

cell membrane, then it enters the

cytoplasm of the cell, then it

takes control of the cell.

As on the previous slide,

the SME asks for an elaboration

of “enters”, then supplements it

with additional information.

(Because of space constraints,

I’ll continue on the next slide,

and shrink the dialogue that’s

occurred so far.)

The virus enters the cytoplasm of the cell.

SME: It’s purpose is to deliver its DNA

to the cytoplasm of the cell.

The virus’s purpose for entering the cytoplasm

of the cell is to deliver its DNA to the cytoplasm

of the cell. OK.


Slide12 l.jpg

SME: A virus invades a cell.

System: A virusinvades a cell. OK.

The virusfirst penetratesthe

cell membrane, then it enters the

cytoplasm of the cell, then it

takes control of the cell.

The virus enters the cytoplasm of the cell.

SME: It’s purpose is to deliver its DNA

to the cytoplasm of the cell.

The virus’s purpose for entering the cytoplasm

of the cell is to deliver its DNA to the cytoplasm

of the cell. OK.

The SME continues to “drill down”

on the convey event

in order to supplement it with

“by means of” a fuse event.

Then the SME removes

from the display

all the details below the green line.

The virus first conveys its DNA

to the cytoplasm of the cell, then it

releases its DNA in the cytoplasm

of the cell.

The virus conveys its DNA to the

cytoplasm of the cell.

SME: This is by means of a fuse of the vesicle

And a lysosome of the cell.

The convey is by means of a fuse of the

vesicle created by the endocytosis and a

lysosome of the cell. OK.


Slide13 l.jpg

SME: A virus invades a cell.

System: A virusinvades a cell. OK.

The virusfirst penetratesthe

cell membrane, then it enters the

cytoplasm of the cell, then it

takes control of the cell.

The virus enters the cytoplasm of the cell.

Now the SME “drills down”

on the release event

in order to supplement it

with a description of the

two steps that comprise it.

That concludes the entry of

knowledge required for our

current scenario.

SME: It’s purpose is to deliver its DNA

to the cytoplasm of the cell.

The virus’s purpose for entering the cytoplasm

of the cell is to deliver its DNA to the cytoplasm

of the cell. OK.

The virus first conveys its DNA

to the cytoplasm of the cell, then it

releases its DNA in the cytoplasm

of the cell.

The virus releases its DNA in the cytoplasm of the cell.

SME: this occurs in two steps. First, the acid in the lysosome

degrades the virus’s protein coat. Second, the virus’s

DNA exits the lysosome into the cytoplasm of the cell.

The release occurs in two steps. First, the acid contained in the

lysosome of the celldegrades the protein coat surrounding the virus.

Second, the DNA part of the virusexits the lysosome of the cell into

the cytoplasm of the cell. OK.


Question answering capabilities l.jpg

Question Answering Capabilities

We are currently working on generating answers to some of the test questions posed by Bob Schrag.

A sample of the results will go here.


Snippets of the component library used in the scenario l.jpg

Snippets of the Component LibraryUsed in the Scenario

  • Move = event that changes the location of a TangibleThing

  • Convey = Move of a Container and its contents

(every Convey has

(patient ((a Container))) the Defining property

(causes ((forall (the contains of (the patient of Self))

(a Move with

(patient ((It)))

(source ((the source of Self)))

(destination ((the destination of Self)))

(concurrent-with ((Self))) )))))


Snippets of the component library l.jpg

Snippets of the Component Library

  • Move = event that changes the location of a TangibleThing

  • Convey = Move of a Container and its contents

  • Release = Undo of a Hold

  • Deliver = Convey then Release

(every Deliver has

(agent ((a Container)))

(patient ((a TangibleThing)))

(subevents ((a Convey with

(agent ((the agent of Self)))

(patient ((the patient of Self)))

(nextEvent ((the Release subevents of Self))))

(a Release with

(agent ((the agent of Self)))

(patient ((the patient of Self)))))))


Snippets of the component library17 l.jpg

Snippets of the Component Library

  • Move = event that changes the location of a TangibleThing

  • Convey = Move of a Container and its contents

  • Release = Undo of a Hold

  • Deliver = Convey then Release

  • Container = Barrier that separates two Space’s, inside and outside

(every Container has

(contains ((must-be-a TangibleThing)))

(portal ((must-be-a Portal)))

(inside ((a Space with (surroundedBy ((Self))))))

(outside ((a Space with (intersects ((<> (the inside of Self)))))))

(prevents (‘(every Dispersion with

(patient (#,(the contains of Self)))

(destination (#,(the Space outside of Self))))))


Snippets of the component library18 l.jpg

Snippets of the Component Library

  • Move = event that changes the location of a TangibleThing

  • Convey = Move of a Container and its contents

  • Release = Undo of a Hold

  • Deliver = Convey then Release

  • Container = Barrier that separates two Space’s, inside and outside

  • Enter = Move into a Container through a Portal

(Enter has (superclasses (Move))

(every Enter has

(beneficiary ((a Container)))

(source ((the outside of (the beneficiary of Self)))

(destination ((the inside of (the beneficiary of Self)))

(through ((:oneof (the portal of (the beneficiary of Self))))))


Snippets of the component library19 l.jpg

Snippets of the Component Library

  • InTake = action by a Container that causes an Enter

  • Penetrate = the Create of a Portal in a Barrier

  • Invade = Penetrate then Enter then TakeControl

(every Invade has

(agent ((a TangibleThing with

(goal ((a ToBe with

(role (agent))

(roleIn (the TakeControl subevents of Self))))))))

(patient ((a Container)))

(subevents ((a Penetrate with

(agent ((the agent of Self)))

(patient ((the patient of Self))))

(a Enter with

(patient ((the agent of Self)))

(beneficiary ((the patient of Self))))

(a TakeControl with

(agent ((the agent of Self)))

(patient ((the patient of Self)))))))


Snippets of the component library20 l.jpg

Snippets of the Component Library

  • Move = event that changes the location of a TangibleThing

  • Convey = Move of a Container and its contents

  • Container = Barrier that separates two Space’s, inside and outside

  • Enter = Move into a Container through a Portal

  • InTake = action by a Container that causes an Enter

  • Endocytosis = InTake by a Cell of an outside Particle

(Endocytosis has (superclasses (InTake)))

(every Endocytosis has

(agent ((a Cell)))

(patient ((a TangibleThing)))

(beneficiary ((the Vesicle creates of (the Invaginate subevents of Self))))

(subevents ((a Invaginate with ; Create of a Container in a Container

(creates ((a Vesicle with (containedBy (the agent of Self)))))

(a PinchOff with ; Close of a Vesicle

(patient ((the Vesicle creates of (the Invaginate subevents

of Self))))))))


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