the control of hazardous energy lockout tagout
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THE CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS ENERGY (LOCKOUT/TAGOUT)

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THE CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS ENERGY (LOCKOUT/TAGOUT). Lockout/Tagout Overview. Covers the servicing and maintenance of equipment where the unexpected energization or start up of equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury

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lockout tagout overview
Lockout/Tagout Overview
  • Covers the servicing and maintenance of equipment where the unexpected energization or start up of equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury
  • Establishes minimum performance requirements for controlling hazardous energy
  • All new equipment installed after January 2, 1990, must be designed to accept lockout of its energy-isolating device
lockout tagout overview continued
Lockout/Tagout Overview (continued)
  • Promulgated January 2, 1990
  • Covers 39 million workers
  • Standard intended to
    • Save 122 lives
    • Reduce 28,400 lost-workday injuries
    • Reduce 31,900 non-lost workday injuries
history
History
  • More citations
  • More costly fines
  • 95% of all lockout/tagout citations involve the failure to have a formal Energy Control Program in place
  • Remains near the top of OSHA’s list of most frequently violated standard
related references
Related References
  • 29 CFR 1910.147, The Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout)
  • 29 CFR 1910.146, Permit-Required Confined Spaces
  • 29 CFR 1910.331-335, Safety-Related Work Practices
  • 29 CFR 1910.269, Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution
  • 29 CFR 1926.417, Lockout and Tagging of Circuits
purpose
Purpose
  • Requires employers to train “authorized” employees
    • When and how to shut down machinery
    • Drain and isolate all energy sources
    • Verify the absence of energy
    • Safely restart equipment when maintenance or repair is complete
  • Mandated awareness training of “affected” workers (equipment operators, etc.)
exemptions
Exemptions
  • Construction
  • Agriculture
  • Maritime
  • Installation under the exclusive control of electric utilities for the purpose of power generation, transmission and distribution, including related equipment for communication or metering
  • Oil and gas well drilling services
exemptions continued
Exemptions (continued)
  • Servicing and/or maintenance during normal production unless the employee:
    • Is required to remove or bypass a guard or other safety device
    • Is required to place any part of his/her body into an area on a machine or piece of equipment where:
      • Work is actually performed upon the material being processed (point of operation)
      • An associated danger zone exists during a machine operating cycle
exemptions continued9
Exemptions(continued)
  • If work is routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of the equipment for production
    • Minor tool changes
    • Adjustments
    • Other minor servicing activities
  • Work on cord and plug
    • Must be able to disconnect cord
    • Must be under the exclusive control of the employee
additional exceptions
Additional Exceptions
  • Machine has no potential for stored or residual energy, or reaccumulation of stored after shutdown
  • Has a single source that can be easily identified and isolated
  • Isolating and locking out the energy source will completely de-energize and deactivate the equipment
  • The equipment is isolated from an energy source and locked out during maintenance
additional exceptions continued
Additional Exceptions(continued)
  • A single lockout device will achieve a lock condition
  • The lockout is under the exclusive control of and in the view of the authorized employee performing the servicing and maintenance
  • The servicing or maintenance does not create hazards for other employees
  • There have been no accidents involving unexpected energization of the equipment while taking advantage of this exception
definitions
Definitions
  • Authorized Employee:
    • A person who locks or tags out equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance
definitions continued
Definitions(continued)
  • Affected employee:
    • Job requires employee to operate or use equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout and tagout conditions
    • Job requires the employee to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed

Note: Becomes an authorized employee when that employee\'s duties include performing servicing or maintenance

definitions continued14
Definitions(continued)
  • Capable of Being Locked Out:
    • An energy isolating device is capable of being locked out if it has a hasp or other means of attachment to which, or through which, a lock can be affixed, or it has a locking mechanism built into it
  • Energized:
    • Connected to an energy source or containing residual or stored energy
definitions continued15
Definitions (continued)
  • Energy isolating device:
    • A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy:
      • Manually operated electrical circuit breaker
      • A disconnect switch
      • Line valve
      • A block
      • Any similar device used to block or isolate energy

Note: Push button, selector switches and other control devices are not energy isolating devices

definitions continued16
Definitions (continued)
  • Energy Sources:
    • Mechanical
    • Hydraulic
    • Electrical
    • Gas
    • Pneumatic
    • Water
    • Chemical
    • Thermal
    • Other stored energy (Springs, capacitors, etc)
definitions continued17
Definitions (continued)
  • Lockout/Tagout:
    • The placement of a lock/tag on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to ensure that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lock and tag is removed
definitions continued18
Definitions(continued)
  • Lockout device:
    • A device that utilizes a positive means such as a lock either key or combination type, to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevents the energizing of a equipment
    • Included are blank flanges and bolted slip blinds
definitions continued19
Definitions (continued)
  • Servicing/maintenance activities
    • Constructing
    • Installing
    • Setting up
    • Adjusting
    • Inspecting
    • Modifying
    • Lubricating
    • Cleaning or unjamming equipment
    • Making adjustments or tool changes
definitions continued20
Definitions(continued)
  • Tagout device:
    • A warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment
    • Can be securely fastened to an energy isolating device in accordance with an established procedure to indicate that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled can not be operated until the tag is removed
energy control program
Energy Control Program
  • Must clearly and specifically outline the:
    • Scope
    • Purpose
    • Authorization
    • Rules
    • Techniques to be utilized for lockout/tagout, and means to enforce compliance
energy control program continued
Energy Control Program(continued)
  • Must include:
    • A statement of the intended used of the procedure
    • Specific steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking, and securing equipment to control hazardous energy
    • Specific steps for the placement, removal and transfer of lockout devices or tagout devices and the responsibility for them
    • Requirements for testing equipment to determine and verify the effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures
where to begin
Where to Begin
  • Conduct a hazard assessment by identifying each piece of equipment that is used, serviced, or maintained
    • Include broken or stored equipment
  • Determine the requirements for lockout
    • If there is more than one primary energy source to the equipment, document each source
where to begin continued
Where to Begin(continued)
  • Document all energy sources
    • Hidden
    • Direct
  • The hazard posed
  • The magnitude or measurable degree of danger
  • Special or unusual conditions
  • Proper isolations and devices
lockout tagout devices
Lockout/Tagout Devices
  • Durable
    • All devices must be capable of withstanding the workplace environment.
    • All tags and their means of attachment must be sturdy enough to prevent inadvertent removal
lockout tagout devices continued
Lockout/Tagout Devices (continued)
  • Standardized
    • Lockout/tagout devices must be
      • Singularly identified
      • The only device(s) used for controlling energy
      • Not be used for other purposes
    • Devices must have the same color, shape, or size.
    • The format and print of tags should be standardized
lockout tagout devices continued28
Lockout/Tagout Devices (continued)
  • Substantial
    • Removal of lockout devices should be extremely difficult to remove, requiring the use of excessive force and the help of tools such as bolt cutters
    • Tagout devices and their attachments must be tough enough so that they can’t be accidentally removed
lockout
Lockout
  • Lockout is a more appropriate means of ensuring deenergization of equipment than tagout
  • If an energy-isolating device can’t be locked out, tagout may be used
    • Tagout may be used in place of lockout if it can be demonstrated that it will offer equivalent protection to that offered by lockout
tagout
Tagout
  • When only a tag is used because equipment cannot be locked out, the following steps must be taken:
    • Removing an isolating circuit element (fuses)
    • Block machine (control switch, die)
    • Opening an extra disconnecting device
    • Other means of isolation
tagout continued
Tagout (continued)
  • Tags must be placed where the lockout device would have been placed
  • A legend must be used such as:
    • Do not start
    • Do not open
    • Do not close
    • Do not energize
    • Do not operate
tagout limitations
Tagout Limitations
  • Tags are attached to energy isolation devices, but they are only warning.
  • They do not provide the protection offered by a lockout procedure
  • A tag is never to be bypassed or ignored, and it may not be removed without the specific authorization of person responsible for it
tagout limitations continued
Tagout Limitations(continued)
  • Tags must be clearly visible and easily understandable by any employee who may be in the area
  • Tags and their attaching materials must be able to withstand any adverse environmental conditions in the workplace
tagout limitations continued34
Tagout Limitations(continued)
  • Tags must be clearly understood and respected to be effective
    • Workers should guard against false sense of security
  • Tags must be carefully secured to the energy-controlling devices so that they can’t easily be detached by accident during use
annual inspections
Annual Inspections
  • Certain circumstances lend themselves to the opportunity for an inspection
    • Construction of new equipment
    • Installation of new equipment
    • Modification or adjustment of equipment
    • Routinely scheduled cleaning and maintenance
    • Major repairs
designating an inspector
Designating an Inspector
  • Periodic inspections must be performed by an authorized employee other than the one(s) using the energy control procedure
  • Who can inspect
    • Department manager
    • Plant management
    • Safety manager
    • Others
employee reviews
Employee Reviews
  • Lockout
    • Must include a review between the inspector and each authorized employee
  • Tagout
    • Must be a review between the inspector and each authorized and affected employee
    • Review should cover each employee\'s responsibility under the procedure being inspected, as well as the limitations of tags
certifying inspections
Certifying Inspections
  • Must certify that the required periodic inspections have been performed
  • Certification must identify the following:
    • The equipment on which the energy control procedure was used
    • The date of the inspection
    • The employee included in the inspection
    • The name of the person performing the inspection
follow up audit
Follow-up audit
  • A follow-up audit must be conducted to ensure that all deficiencies noted have been corrected
  • Documentation must identify:
    • The equipment on which the lockout procedure is being utilized
    • The date of the inspection
    • Employees interviewed
    • Employee(s) performing the inspection
specific requirements
Specific Requirements
  • A training program must consist of:
    • Effective initial training
    • Periodic retraining as necessary
    • Certification that training has been given to all employees covered by the standard
  • Certification must become part of employee record and contain
    • Employee\'s name
    • Date of training
specific requirements continued
Specific Requirements(continued)
  • Training must be provided to ensure that the purpose and function of the energy control program are understood by employees
  • That the knowledge and skills required for the safe application, usage, and removal of the energy controls are acquired by employees
type of training
Type of Training
  • The amount and kind of training is based upon
    • The relationship of each employee’s job to the equipment being locked or tagged out
    • The degree of knowledge relevant to hazardous energy that he/she must possess
      • Need to know
authorized employee
Authorized Employee
  • Each authorized employee must receive the following training:
    • The purpose of the procedure
    • Ability to recognize applicable hazardous energy sources in the workplace
    • The type and magnitude of the energy available in the workplace
    • Understanding the means and methods of isolating and/or controlling the various types of energy sources
    • Ways to verify that energy isolation is effective
affected employees
Affected Employees
  • All affected employees must be instructed in the purpose and use of the lockout/tagout system
  • Create awareness
other employees
Other Employees
  • All other employees (including new hires) whose work operations are or may be in an area where lockout/tagout may be utilized
  • These employees must be instructed:
    • About the procedure
    • That they are prohibited from starting up or reenergizing any locked-out or tagged-out equipment they encounter
retraining
Retraining
  • Must be conducted for all authorized and affected employees whenever:
    • There is a change in job assignment
    • Change in equipment, machinery, or processes that presents a new hazard
    • A change in the lockout/tagout procedure
retraining continued
Retraining (continued)
  • Must be conducted whenever a periodic inspection reveals or whenever the authorized employee has reason to believe that there are deviations from or inadequacies in the employee\'s knowledge or use of the lockout/tagout procedures
group lockout tagout
Group Lockout/Tagout
  • When servicing and/or maintenance is performed by a crew, craft, department or other group, they must utilize a procedure that affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout/tagout device
group lockout tagout continued
Group Lockout/Tagout (continued)
  • Primary responsibility is vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device
  • Provision for the authorized employee to ascertain the exposure status of individual group members with regard to the lockout/tagout of the equipment
group lockout tagout continued52
Group Lockout/Tagout (continued)
  • Lockout/tagout control responsibility is designated to an authorized employee to coordinate affected work forces and ensure continuity of protection
  • Each authorized employee must affix a personal lockout/tagout device to the group lockout device, group lock box, or comparable mechanism when he/she begins work, and must remove those devices when he/she stops working on the equipment being serviced or maintained
shift or personnel changes occur
Shift or personnel changes occur
  • Continuity of lockout/tagout protection must be ensured by following specific procedures for shift and personnel changes, including the orderly hand-off of lockout of lockout/tagout devices
unusual conditions
Unusual Conditions
  • Machines need to be tested or repositioned during servicing
    • When necessary, under special condition, OSHA allows the temporary removal of locks or tags and the reenergization of the equipment
      • Example, when power is needed for the testing or positioning of equipment
unusual conditions continued
Unusual Conditions (continued)
  • Subject to the follow restrictions:
    • Equipment must be cleared of tools and material
    • Employees must vacate the equipment areas
    • The lockout/tagout device must be removed only by the authorized employee who applied it
unusual conditions continued56
Unusual Conditions (continued)
  • Energization may then be allowed by testing or positioning
  • All systems must be de-energized, the employee or equipment must be isolated from energy source, and the lockout/tagout devices reapplied
contractors
Contractors
  • Must inform each other of all applicable lockout/tagout procedures.
  • Both employer and contractor must ensue that their employees understand and will respect the others Energy Control Program
typical shutdown procedure
Typical Shutdown Procedure
  • Notify affected employees
  • Use the specific procedures as outlined for the appropriate situation
  • Shut off energy source(s) to affected equipment
    • Use normal stopping or running procedures for the machine
  • Isolate the equipment from the energy source
shutdown procedures continued
Shutdown Procedures (continued)
  • Affix lock(s) and tag(s) to each energy source controlling device
  • Relieve all stored energy from capacitor banks, springs, compressed air, hydraulics, steam, etc.
  • Verify isolation of energy has occurred by trying equipment
removal of lockout tagout and start up procedures
Removal of Lockout/Tagout and Start-Up Procedures
  • Ensure that nonessential items are removed from equipment
  • Ensure that equipment components are intact
  • Check area to ensure that all affected employees are safely positioned or removed from the area
  • Notify all affected employees and site supervisor before reenergizing the equipment
  • Remove lockout/tagout device
  • Reenergize equipment to ensure safe operation
summary
Summary
  • Accidents will happen
  • Equipment will occasionally malfunction
  • People will still make mistakes

There is no excuse for serious injury that results from ignorance, carelessness, complacency, or lack of an Energy Control Program

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