Hunger. The Physiology of Hunger. Contractions of the stomach Washburn study. Physiology of Hunger. Washburn’s studies showed hunger was partially related to the stomach. But those with their stomachs removed still feel hunger. Body Chemistry. Glucose
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In the 1960’s it was discovered that hunger comes from………..
Stimulate the lateral hypothalamus and even a well fed animal will begin to eat.
Lesion the lateral hypothalamus and a starving animal will have no interest in food.
Stimulate the ventromedial hypothalamus and the animal will stop eating
Lesion the ventromedial hypothalamus the animal will continuously want to eat.
Leptin is a protein produced by bloated fat cells.
Hypothalamus senses rises in leptin and will curb eating and increase activity.
Can leptin injections help me?
Hypothalamus acts like a thermostat.
We are meant to be in a certain weight range.
When we fall below weight our body will increase hunger and decrease energy expenditure (Basic Metabolic Rate).
What happens if we go above our set point?How does the hypothalamus work?
Click on the pictures to see some case studies on obesity.
We store energy in fat cells, which become larger & more numerous if we are obese, and smaller (but still more numerous) if we then lose weight.
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= add definition here
= a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
= a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
= the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
= a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.
= a positive or negative environment stimulus that motivates behavior
= Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
= the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
= the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
= the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.
= an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
= an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
= significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.
= the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
= a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
= sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amount by females than males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
= the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
= an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).