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Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce Emissions (AIRE) Oceanic Demonstration . Presented by: Thien Ngo (ATO-P), Jim Webb (ZNY), Sandy Liu (AEE) April 15, 2009. Presentation Outline. Oceanic TBO Project Description Overview Objectives Key Initiatives Roadmap Benefits to NextGen

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atlantic interoperability initiative to reduce emissions aire oceanic demonstration

Atlantic Interoperability Initiative to Reduce Emissions (AIRE) Oceanic Demonstration

Presented by: Thien Ngo (ATO-P), Jim Webb (ZNY), Sandy Liu (AEE)

April 15, 2009

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Oceanic TBO Project Description
    • Overview
    • Objectives
    • Key Initiatives
  • Roadmap
  • Benefits to NextGen
  • Related Programs
  • AIRE-Oceanic Demonstration Procedures
  • Metrics Data Collection & Analysis
  • Closing Remarks
oceanic trajectory management overview
Oceanic Trajectory Management Overview
  • The NextGen Concept of Operations and an Enterprise Architecture have been developed to establish a framework for the future by defining two major concepts:
    • Four Dimension Trajectory Based Operations — The goal is allow flights to find their best route, rather than restrict them to controllable paths.
    • Air Traffic Management — The goal is to transition the FAA to a more collaborative environment to limit constraints on aircraft profiles to only those necessary to maintain safety and system efficiency.
  • 4D Trajectory Based Operations (4DTBO) are a fundamental part of NextGen it will allow gate-to-gate operations and closer to business optimal trajectories while increasing safety, capacity and efficiency and reducing environmental impact
  • 4DTBO integrate trajectory planning, management, and execution from strategic planning to tactical decision making
4dtbo objectives
4DTBO Objectives
  • 4DTBO represents a shift from clearance-based control to trajectory-based management
    • Via new decision support capabilities and integrated traffic flow management, aircraft will transmit and receive precise data including aircraft trajectories
    • Via Data Communications, ensuring that precise and timely information is available to pilots and controllers
  • FY 2009 activities:
    • Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Contract (ADS-C) In-Trail Procedures (ITP)
      • Provides more reduced separation standards for climb-through and descend-through
    • Web-enabled Collaborative Trajectory Planning (CTP)
      • Provides an information sharing capability for AOC and ANSP systems planning oceanic entry and optimized trajectories
    • Oceanic Trajectory Management-4D (OTM-4D)
      • Provides operators with an increased likelihood of more efficient step-climb profiles
      • Enables operators to fly closer to their optimal/requested trajectories by using optimization tools to identify beneficial trajectory changes
ads c in trail procedures itp
ADS-C In-Trail Procedures (ITP)
  • Develop ADS-C ITP for Operational Trials with existing FANS ADS technology
    • Climb/descent to a requested Flight Level through one intermediate Flight Level occupied by a blocking aircraft
    • Based on existing ADS-C equipment and technology coupled with new ATC procedures
  • ADS-C ITP will have smaller longitudinal separation minima (e.g. 10-15 nm) than standard separation (e.g., 30 nm, 50 nm) with aircraft at intermediate flight levels
  • ADS-C ITP is a controller initiated procedure implemented after a pilot request
web enabled collaborative trajectory planning ctp
Web-Enabled Collaborative Trajectory Planning (CTP)
  • Leverage existing technologies to provide an interface among ANSPs and airline AOCs for improved collaboration and information sharing
    • Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus (DOTS+)
      • DOTS Plus provides wind optimized tracks and traffic planning
      • DOTS Plus Online (DPO) provides a web interface for airlines to DOTS Plus.
    • Develop a service for Web-enabled CTP
      • Provide DOTS Plus data to the end user
      • Provide capability to collect and utilize data from airlines
      • Allow flexible manipulation of the gateway reservation list
      • Allow for collaborative trajectory planning
  • Currently in the requirements definition phase for Web-Enabled CTP
    • Requirements will become more refined as airlines gain experience with DOTS Plus Online and provide feedback
oceanic trajectory management 4d otm 4d
Oceanic Trajectory Management - 4D (OTM-4D)
  • Pre-Departure OTM-4D
    • Enhance trajectory by optimizing oceanic entry while considering planned step climbs beyond the oceanic entry point
    • Currently refining the Concept of Operations
    • Perform Traffic Distribution Analysis to initiate prototype requirements development
  • In-Flight OTM-4D
    • Identify beneficial trajectory changes for individual aircraft pairs and traffic flows through optimization analysis tools
    • Currently performing data analysis and applying lessons learned from AIRE-Oceanic demonstrations
    • Perform Traffic Distribution Analysis to initiate prototype requirements development
    • Develop metrics baseline
embedded otm project elements in aire and aspire
Embedded OTM Project Elements in AIRE and ASPIRE
  • AIRE and ASPIRE are international partnerships to promote aviation technologies and procedures beneficial to the environment
  • Due to the international nature of AIRE and ASPIRE, OTM plays a major role in the success of both partnerships
  • OTM program activities are embedded in the AIRE and ASPIRE demonstrations to show environmental benefits
aire oceanic demonstration may 2008

Aircraft on a

Pre-Optimization

flight profile

1

AOC recalculates profile

and sends to Oceanic

Coordinator. Pilot

requests clearance

2

ATC probes

new profile for conflicts

3

AEA089

FL 390

Mach 081

Profile Available:

ATC clears

aircraft to new profile

4a

Profile Not Available:

ATC sends Unable to

pilot, investigates

alternatives, and

suggests alternative

profile to AOC

4b

Repeat sequence

with Step 2

5

AIRE-Oceanic Demonstration – May 2008

Optimization Sequence

MAD

New York

Oceanic

Santa Maria

Oceanic

Coordination and Clearance Sequence

SDQ

Note: 2009 Demonstration Procedures

have been simplified

Sequence repeats at every 10 degrees of longitude

fuel savings from avoiding strong headwinds
Fuel Savings from Avoiding Strong Headwinds

Flight Plan Route

Strong headwind

Flown Route

Picture: Courtesy of Air Europa Airlines

slide14

Flights

AIRE-Oceanic Demonstration Results – May 2008

  • Total 6,946 lbs of CO2 with 7 flights (up to 1% fuel saved). This equates to:
    • CO2 emissions from 330 gallons (6.8 barrels) of oil consumed
    • CO2 emissions avoided by recycling 1.0 ton of waste instead of sending to landfill
    • Carbon sequestered by 75 trees seedlings grown for 10 years

Fuel Savings (gallons)

Unexpected headwind

Demonstration Dates:

May 19, 20, 26, and 27, 2008

asia and south pacific initiative to reduce emissions aspire
Asia and South Pacific Initiative to Reduce Emissions (ASPIRE)
  • After the launch of AIRE in June 2007, a counterpart program in the Asia Pacific region was envisioned to leverage the efforts of existing North and South Pacific informal working groups (IPACG and ISPACG) and encourage a stronger focus on environmental benefits
  • High level statement on ASPIRE collaboration was signed on February 18, 2008 in Singapore between the FAA, Airservices Australia, and Airways New Zealand
  • Initial ASPIRE efforts focused on South Pacific initiatives, with future expansion to the North Pacific and the rest of the Asia Pacific region
    • ASPIRE 1: AKL to SFO (Airways NZ – B777 – Sep 12, 2008)
    • ASPIRE 2: LAX to MEL (Qantas – A380 – Oct 22, 2008)
    • ASPIRE 3: SYD to SFO (United – B747 – Nov 14, 2008)
aspire demonstration focus
ASPIRE Demonstration Focus
  • End-to-End Demonstration
  • Possible constraints were removed by cleansing airspace of additional traffic to allow for optimal flight conditions with the aim of creating the ‘Perfect Flight’
  • Maximize use of technology and procedures in all airspace domains
    • Reduced APU use, just-in-time refueling, maximum climb power, oceanic UPRs, lower cost index en route and during TA, delayed flap initiation
  • Most savings available to all flights now
  • http://www.airways.co.nz/ASPIRE/
nextgen oceanic tbo benefits ads c itp business case
NextGen Oceanic TBO Benefits:ADS-C ITP Business Case
  • The FAA recently conducted a business case assessment of ADS-C ITP, including a benefits analysis
  • Based on Oakland Center traffic, with a 35% FANS equipage rate, the analysis projected total combined fuel savings up to 20,000 pounds per day
  • A FANS equipage rate nearing 100% increased the potential benefits to nearly 40,000 pounds per day
  • Although not calculated in the study, benefits are potentially much higher when factors like contingency fuel and 2nd aircraft climb opportunities to vacated altitudes are considered
nextgen oceanic tbo benefits otm 4d preliminary benefits information
NextGen Oceanic TBO Benefits: OTM-4D – Preliminary Benefits Information
  • Pre-Departure
    • About 10% of flights obtain sub-optimal Track Allocation Slot
    • Fuel Savings potential from slot enhancement: on average, 0.9% per affected flight with a predicted range of 0.3% to 3.9%
    • Contingency Fuel Reduction on all flights based on improved predictability could be as high as 3%
    • Further benefits assessment will be conducted in 2008
  • In-Flight
    • 2.5% of flights cannot execute their preferred speed profiles
    • 87% of these flights experience an interaction with only one other flight
    • 13% of these flights experience interactions with two other flights
    • Calculation of optimization control strategies and associated benefits will be conducted in 2008
nextgen oceanic tbo benefits increased efficiency and capacity
NextGen Oceanic TBO Benefits: Increased Efficiency and Capacity
  • OTM-4D will provide more optimal trajectories by
    • Allowing flexible oceanic entry, when the preferred choice is not available, and by
    • identifying opportunities to allow improvement of trajectories in-flight
  • Reduced separation standards for properly equipped aircraft lead to fewer conflicts, and as a result, fewer diversions from the preferred routing
  • Oceanic efficiency enhancements and separation reductions result in increased capacity within flow constrained airspace, allowing more aircraft to fly through these areas
aire oceanic demonstration
AIRE-Oceanic Demonstration

Objectives

  • Illustrate the emissions’ reductions that can be achieved when a limited set of flights are allowed to fly closer to their 4D User Preferred Trajectories (UPT)
  • Understand coordination requirements between the oceanic centers, AOC, the flight crew, and ATC for the modifications of trajectories, while limiting pilot & controller workload
  • Demonstrate emissions saving without increasing controller workload by using reroute request procedures that are not significantly different from current procedures
  • Feasibility of linking an oceanic trajectory to a Tailored Arrival (TA) procedure
aire oceanic demonstration cont
AIRE-Oceanic Demonstration (cont)
  • Scope
    • Limited to candidate flights whose planned flight trajectories are mainly within the oceanic airspace controlled by New York (ZNY) and Santa Maria (LPPO) Oceanic Centers
  • Demonstration Period
    • Conducted over two month period from June 2009 through July 2009
  • Procedure Cancellation
    • Conclusion of the AIRE Oceanic demonstration period
aire oceanic demonstration cont1
AIRE-Oceanic Demonstration (cont)
  • Selection of Candidate Flights
    • Majority of their oceanic flight plan operate within ZNY & LPPO oceanic airspace
    • Limited to aircraft that are ADS-C & CPDLC equipped
    • Limited to westbound flights that enter North Atlantic Oceanic airspace from within the LPPO CTA & proceed directly into ZNY CTA

FAA & Nav Portugal will collaborate on the AIRE-Oceanic Demonstration

step by step procedures
Step-by-Step Procedures
  • AOC’s determine candidate flight & responsible for coordination with flight crews
  • AOC’s submit list of candidate flights to LPPO & ZNY & coordinate changes
  • AOC’s file Oceanic flight plans in accordance with current ICAO directives & NOTAMS
step by step procedures1
Step-by-Step Procedures
  • Flight crew perform normal procedures before entering Santa Maria Oceanic Center
    • Receipt of oceanic clearance via ACARS
    • FANS notification to LPPO
    • Confirmation of CPDLC & ADS-C connection
    • HF SELCAL check
  • Candidate flight becomes active after receiving oceanic clearance from LPPO
step by step procedures2
Step-by-Step Procedures
  • Once airborne, AOC monitors weather & winds
  • If not optimal, AOC computes new User Preferred Trajectory (UPT), starting from a reporting point in current flight plan
  • AOC sends UPT to aircraft over AOC data link flagged for loading into inactive route for evaluation

step by step procedures3
Step-by-Step Procedures
  • Flight crew determines proposed request is acceptable
  • send rejection or acceptance message to AOC
  • Flight crew downlinks DM-24 request message , based on inactive route
  • ATC receives new trajectory & performs conflict probe
  • Change is acceptable, ATC replies with route clearance using UM-80 or UM-83
  • Not acceptable, ATC sends UNABLE to aircraft

step by step procedures4
Step-by-Step Procedures
  • Workload permitting, ATC will evaluate alternative, send clearance to flight-deck using UM-80 or UM-83, optionally UM-169 message explaining alternate trajectory
  • Flight crew will assess alternate trajectory clearance & either issue a WILCO or REJECT to ATC

step by step procedures5
Step-by-Step Procedures
  • AOC may re-initiate process as many times as required, subject to the following:
  • Flight entering Piarco ACC FIR must exit ZNY Oceanic Airspace via:
  • 18N060W direct PPR
  • 18N058W direct FOF
  • 18N056W or points East direct BGI
  • Flight exiting ZNY airspace into ZMA or SJU CERAP may reprofile to exit ZNY oceanic airspace over named 5-letter fix & establish itself on an existing airway entering those facilities

step by step procedures6
Step-by-Step Procedures
  • Vertical profile change request shall be handled separately from 2D route change requests
  • Candidate flight inbound to KMIA and route via SUMRS, considered suitable to REQUEST a TA clearance
  • AOC will regenerate aircraft UPT to optimize to meet contraint(s) of any TA clearance & notify flight crew
step by step procedures7
Step-by-Step Procedures
  • AOC will monitor & compute new UPT
  • Aircraft with a preliminary TA clearance will follow the TA procedures
  • Once candidate flight has met criteria, it proceeds to the destination airport via filed or cleared routing
tailored arrivals ta
Tailored Arrivals (TA)

Tailored Arrival clearances will be issued separately

If a TA clearance is received AOC, if necessary, will recalculate new trajectory to end in TA

Procedure is then followed as for normal reroute

The aircraft will follow the current TA clearance procedure when approaching the Ocean Exit Fix

slide35

Metrics

Lead: Sandy Liu

Office of Environment & Energy (AEE)

proposed data collection methods
Proposed Data Collection Methods
  • Pilot/crew Log sheet recording
    • Baseline (prior 1-month ops)
    • Demo flights (as scheduled) OR
  • Cockpit Flight Data Recorder/Flight Operations Quality Assurance system
    • Baseline (prior 1-month ops)
    • Demo flights (as scheduled)
  • Airline Operations Center and Aviation Navigation Service Provider(s) System data
    • Filed Flight Plans information/data
    • Simultaneous AOC data of flight Baselines & Demo flights
data analysis coordination
Data Analysis Coordination
  • Compile aircraft log & AOC/ANSP data and report out on data – performance and environmental findings. OR
  • Airline transmit and/or process CFDR/FOQA to report on – performance and environmental findings AND
  • Compile AOC/ANSP data and report and compare – performance and environmental findings.
reporting measures
Reporting Measures

Record actual:

  • Fuel Burn (lbs or gals) – PRIMARY Metric
  • Payload
  • Trajectory
  • Meteorological – winds/temp

Compute prediction:

  • CO2 emissions - convert from fuel use
  • Noise in terminal area (optional)
oi milestones from iwp
OI Milestones from IWP

Short Term

Research

Medium Term

Research

Long Term

Research

nextgen and sesar concepts
NextGen and SESAR Concepts
  • Possible future concepts
    • Aircraft Operator/Pilot owns 4D Trajectory
    • Separation minima 5NM or 3NM in cooperation with aircraft
  • No fixed or ‘flexible-fixed’ route structure
    • No ocean entry points or exit points
    • Operator plans entire 4D trajectory
    • Operator monitors flight and re-plans for business optimal flight as necessary
    • Aircraft then uses datalink to request new trajectory
  • Aircraft expected to be given Performance Based Service and to have an RNP 1 or better capability
  • Wind-efficient ‘Business Trajectories’
  • Cruise-climbs
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