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Top 10 fixes. Define terms and give more explanation of findings and concepts (minimum 2-3 pages) Add more citations to support claims (5 minimum). Citations and References should match 100% Eliminate first person (I or My hypothesis)… The hypothesis tested in the present study

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Top 10 fixes

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Top 10 fixes

Top 10 fixes

  • Define terms and give more explanation of findings and concepts (minimum 2-3 pages)

  • Add more citations to support claims (5 minimum).

  • Citations and References should match 100%

  • Eliminate first person (I or My hypothesis)… The hypothesis tested in the present study

  • No more than one (two max) direct quotes.. Put in your own words.

  • Purpose and details of your study/hypothesis go at the end of the intro.

  • No wikipedia – go to direct sources

  • Use APA style

  • Include title page

  • Logical flow and transitions between ideas

Introduction outline

Introduction Outline

Begin outlining your introduction. You may use the following general format:

  • General topic

    • Description of research field

    • General findings

  • Research findings (content of what we know)

    • Results related to current study

    • Other related findings

  • Hypothesis

    • Statement of the problem(s)

    • Approach to solve some issue(s)

    • Novel aspects of the study

    • Potential importance of findings

    • Projected results

Cook library sources

Cook Library sources

Apa style resources

APA style resources

Formatting basics apa style

Formatting Basics – APA Style

  • Use 12-point Times Roman or Courier

  • Use 1-inch margins on all sides

  • Double-space

  • Indent the first line of every paragraph five to seven spaces (1/2 inch)

  • Number all pages consecutively ½ inch from the page header (abbreviated title)

  • Page number and page header should be ½ inch from top of each page

Headings apa style

Headings – APA Style

  • Headings should be brief and descriptive.

  • There are five different levels of headings.

  • Only one to two levels will be needed for Research Methods papers.


    Level 1 (Centered Uppercase and Lowercase)


    Level 3 (Flush left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading)

    Experiment 1

Tables apa style

Tables – APA Style

  • Tables should be numbered consecutively as they appear in the text (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, and so forth)

  • Tables should not break across pages so place table as close as possible to mention in text.

  • Each table should be labeled with table number followed by a description of the table on the next line.

Numbers apa style

Numbers – APA Style

  • Numbers 10 and above are expressed as numerals (e.g., 20 students)

  • Numbers below 10 should be expressed in words (e.g., eight students)

  • If a number is below 10 but represents a specific measurement, numerals should be used (e.g., 4 cm, 6 min, 1 h)

  • If you start a sentence with a number above 10, express it as a word (Fifteen days elapsed between training and testing)

  • Use numerals only with percent symbols (e.g., 5%)

Biased language apa style

Biased Language – APA Style

  • Avoid any language that causes offense

  • “Gender” refers to culture and should be used when referring to men and women as social groups

  • “Sex” refers to biology and should be used when biological distinctions are emphasized

  • Avoid gender stereotypes

  • Be sensitive to labels

References apa style

References – APA Style

“References cited in the text must appear in the reference list; conversely, each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text.” (APA, 2001, p. 215)

References in text apa style

References (In Text) – APA Style

  • Use the basic (author, date) or author (date) format in text.


    “For example, Lewin (1991) reported that instructions…”

    “Linguist Noam Chomsky has strongly asserted that language is a unique human characteristic (Booth, 1990).

References in text apa style1

References (In Text) – APA Style

  • If there are two authors, both names should be spelled out each time cited.


    “In an experimental study, O’Sullivan and Yeager (1989) contrasted the two techniques, using Terrace’s Nim as their subject.”

    “Like many of the apes studied, gorillas Koko and Michael have been observed signing to one another (Patterson & Linden, 1981).”

References in text apa style2

References (In Text) – APA Style

  • For three to five authors, all names are used in first citation and then “et al.” is used following the 1st author’s name.


    1st Citation - “In an influential article, Terrace, Petitto, Sanders, and Bever (1979) argued that the apes in language experiments were not using language spontaneously but were merely imitating their trainers, responding to conscious or unconscious cues.”

    2nd Citation – “Terrace et al. (1979) suggested that there was…”

  • For six or more authors, use et al. every time the reference is cited (including the 1st time).

References list apa style

References List – APA Style

  • Reference list should begin on a new page.

  • Italics should be used for titles.

  • A hanging indent of one-half inch should be used.

  • Items should be listed alphabetically.

  • Reference list should be double-spaced.

Quotations apa style

Quotations –APA Style

Apa references

APA references


Chall, J. S. (1996). The academic achievement challenge: What really works in the classroom.New York: Guilford.

Chall, J.S. (2000). American reading achievement: Should we worry? Research in the Teaching of English, 30, 303-10.

Hall, J. (1996). The new reading debates: Evidence from science, art and ideology. Teachers College Record, 94, 315+. Retrieved August 4, 2001 from Academic Search/EBSCO database.

Moats, L.C. (2000, October). Whole language lives on: The illusion of “balanced” reading instruction. Retrieved March 31, 2003 from library/wholelang/moats.html

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