Journal of the day
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Journal of the Day. Why is it important to know who is in your country? (8 sent). Population & Urbanization. Chapter 16. Demography. Ch. 16.1 P. 530-535 Learning Objective: Learn the three processes of population: fertility, mortality, migration. Demography.

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Journal of the day

Journal of the Day

  • Why is it important to know who is in your country? (8 sent)

Population urbanization

Population & Urbanization

Chapter 16



Ch. 16.1

P. 530-535

Learning Objective:

Learn the three processes of population: fertility, mortality, migration



  • Definition: The scientific study of population

  • Why do people study populations?

    • It affects the social structure, especially in crowded areas

    • Look for patterns in order to predict behavior

    • Plan ahead for the future based on population shifts



  • Definition: group of people living in a specific geographic place at a specific time

  • Factors of population:

    • Number of people (size)

    • Distribution (where & how are they located)

    • Composition (groups)

    • Ages in population (age structure)

Three population processes

Three Population Processes

  • Changes in population occur due to:

    • Fertility (births)

    • Mortality (deaths)

    • Migration

Fertility births

Fertility (births)

  • Definition: number of children born each year

  • Measured by crude birthrate: (approximate) number of live births per 1,000 people

  • Fertility rate: births per 1,000 women age 15-44

  • Total fertility rate: avg. kids born in a woman’s life

  • Fecundity: highest number of kids a woman can have in a lifetime (~15)





Mortality deaths

Mortality (deaths)

  • Life Span: longest age humans can survive

  • Life Expectancy: average age a person of a certain population can expect to live to

  • Measured by crude death rate: approximate number of deaths per 1,000 members

    • Infant mortality rate: deaths of children under the age of 1

      • Important because children are first to suffer from poor health conditions

Global life expectancy

Global Life Expectancy

Infant mortality death rates

Infant Mortality Death Rates

Why are fertility mortality rates important for sociology

Why are fertility & mortality rates important for sociology?

  • Gives general idea of the health of a population

    • Availability of food & health care

    • Distribution of disease

  • Easily illustrates certain social factors

    • Age at marriage

    • Economic development

    • Education status

    • Attitudes towards reproduction and contraception



  • Def: movement of people from one area to another

  • Emigrate: to LEAVE a country/place

  • Immigrate : to COME TO a country/place

  • You emigrate FROM one country and immigrate TO another country

  • Net migration: people entering – people leaving

    • Net migration for Bahrain: +22, 081 (2012)

Opening discussion

Opening Discussion

What’s going on in the world?

Early human migration

Early Human Migration

Global air traffic

Global Air Traffic

Journal of the day

  • What are reasons people immigrate to new, and often times, strange locations?

  • What effect does migration have on the receiving nation?

  • What are the benefits and side effects of a:

    • Closed immigration policy

    • Open immigration policy

Migration assignment

Migration Assignment

  • Find a CURRENT (in the last month) news article discussing HUMAN migration patterns.

  • Print the article

  • Write a 15 sentence summary

    • Which area/country are they discussing?

    • Why are people leaving?

    • Where are they going to?



  • If the population goes unchecked (continues to grow), what problems would societies, and the world, face? (8 sentences)

World population

World Population

Ch. 16.2

P. 536-546

Learning Objective: Understand population pressure and changes on a global scale

Population growth

Population Growth

  • Current population: 7.2 billion people

  • Year AD 1: ~250 million people

    • AD 1650: 500 million (doubled)

    • AD 1800: 1 billion

    • AD 1930: 2 billion

  • Doubling time: time needed for a population to double; typically takes fewer years to double as the population gets bigger


Global population change

Global Population Change

Reasons for growth

Reasons for Growth

  • More population to increase the population

  • Better nutrition and access to food

  • Better medical care

  • More education

  • Engineered plants, animals, and buildings to withstand natural events

Problems with growth

Problems with Growth

  • Thomas Malthus (1798):

    • Population will outpace food supply

    • Poor have larger families and any additional income would incur more births

  • Overcame assumption with ability to grow more food (utilizing scientific discoveries and changing previous habits

Demographic transition model

Demographic Transition Model

Dem tran model 2

Dem. Tran. Model 2

Population growth rates

Population Growth Rates

Controlling the population

Controlling the Population

  • Government decisions to halt population increase in their countries

  • How?

    • Family planning services (birth control, education)

    • Sterilization programs

    • Disincentives (being punished or not receiving rights/privileges for not following rules)

    • Fines

China s one child policy

China’s One Child Policy

  • Rural families allowed to have 2 children if first is a female or disabled

  • Ethnic minorities exempt

  • Only child parents allowed to have 2 kids

  • Originally started in 1970s as a 2-child policy to reduce the strain on public services

  • Fines vary as it is a formula based on individual income

Journal of the day

  • How do government decisions in your personal life affect the larger society?

  • Do they (gov’t) have the right to interfere with personal privacy?

Population pyramids

Population Pyramids

  • Purpose: shows the age and sex of a population

  • Helpful to show dependents (<15 & >64)

Journal of the day

  • What problems arise when there is a “graying” of the population (lots of older people)?

  • What problems are there when there are a lot of young dependents?

  • What services will be needed to support old and young dependents?



  • What are pros and cons of living in a city? (8 sent.)

The urban transition

The Urban Transition

Ch. 16.3

P. 548-554

Learning Objective: Why do cities develop and what problems arise?

Push pull

Push & Pull

  • Push factors:

    • Why people leave a place

  • Pull factors:

    • Why people move to a new location

Why cities develop

Why Cities Develop

  • Consider where cities spring up

    • Why did New York, Boston, London, Paris, Baghdad, Cairo, Istanbul become such large and important cities?



  • Too many people come to the city

  • Unable to supply people with jobs or housing

  • Services become overwhelmed

Central city problems

Central City Problems

  • Wealthy people able to move away from inner city to SUBURBS

    • Businesses and jobs follow the people out to suburbs

    • Leaves decrepit buildings

  • Minorities and low income people cannot escape central city

    • No money to support those who need it most

City and soc

City and Soc

  • Industrial Revolution saw people move from agricultural/rural areas to urban areas (cities)

  • Sociology created by understanding challenges that present itself when various people share a common space

Urban ecology

Urban Ecology

Ch. 16.4

p. 556-560

Learning Objective: The effect of city design

Urban ecology1

Urban Ecology

  • Relationships between people and their city environment

  • 4 theories of city growth

    • Concentric zone

    • Sector

    • Multiple nuclei

    • Peripheral

Concentric zone theory

Concentric Zone Theory

  • Growth starts in the central city and circular areas grow out from there

  • “Bull’s Eye Model” or “Burgess Model”

  • “Heart” of city is CBD (central business district)

    • Made up of major gov’t/private buildings and most important businesses

  • Highly influenced by those with money (able to buy land and use it for whatever their purposes are)

  • Example: Chicago

Concentric zones

Concentric Zones

  • Zone in Transition: Lots of change occurring

    • Invasion of the CBD into the next zone

    • Residents leave as more businesses move in

    • Zone doesn’t always become incorporated into CBD

  • Workingmen’s Homes: “Blue collar” jobs

  • Residential Zone: Middle and Upper Middle Class living (“White collar” professions)

  • Commuter’s Zone: Upper class living

Sector theory

Sector Theory

  • Emphasizes transportation routeswhich come from CBD to different zones

  • Growth of urban activities expand along roads, rivers, and railways

  • Does NOT take into account the automobile which makes trade easier

  • Example: Seattle, San Francisco

Sector theory model

Sector Theory Model

Multiple nuclei theory

Multiple Nuclei Theory

  • Influenced by geographic or historical influence, NOT the CBD

  • City has several “centers,” which based on their use attract certain uses while repelling others

  • Works for cities that aren’t described by the concentric zone or sector theories

  • Greater movement because of higher car ownership

  • Example: Boston

Multiple nuclei theory model

Multiple Nuclei Theory Model

Peripheral theory

Peripheral Theory

  • Focuses on the importance of suburbs around the central city

  • Suburbs now contain elements of central city and thus do not need a CBD or other sectors

  • Better suited for newer cities who do not focus on the CBD

Sim city 3000

Sim City 3000

  • Groups no more than 4

  • Create a city (drawn, computer generated)

  • Use models from p. 557 (labeled, color coded)

    • Why did you choose that model (benefits)

  • Must include key/legend

  • Resources available to your country/city

  • Reasons people would come (pull factors)

  • Overall population ( example: Somewhereville, pop. 790,561)

  • Must include services

    • Schools, hospitals, fire/police, gov’t offices, parks, post offices, restaurants

  • Infrastructure

    • Roads, trains, metros, bus, futuristic transport

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