Journal of the day
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Journal of the Day. Why is it important to know who is in your country? (8 sent). Population & Urbanization. Chapter 16. Demography. Ch. 16.1 P. 530-535 Learning Objective: Learn the three processes of population: fertility, mortality, migration. Demography.

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Journal of the Day

  • Why is it important to know who is in your country? (8 sent)

Population & Urbanization

Chapter 16


Ch. 16.1

P. 530-535

Learning Objective:

Learn the three processes of population: fertility, mortality, migration


  • Definition: The scientific study of population

  • Why do people study populations?

    • It affects the social structure, especially in crowded areas

    • Look for patterns in order to predict behavior

    • Plan ahead for the future based on population shifts


  • Definition: group of people living in a specific geographic place at a specific time

  • Factors of population:

    • Number of people (size)

    • Distribution (where & how are they located)

    • Composition (groups)

    • Ages in population (age structure)

Three Population Processes

  • Changes in population occur due to:

    • Fertility (births)

    • Mortality (deaths)

    • Migration

Fertility (births)

  • Definition: number of children born each year

  • Measured by crude birthrate: (approximate) number of live births per 1,000 people

  • Fertility rate: births per 1,000 women age 15-44

  • Total fertility rate: avg. kids born in a woman’s life

  • Fecundity: highest number of kids a woman can have in a lifetime (~15)



Mortality (deaths)

  • Life Span: longest age humans can survive

  • Life Expectancy: average age a person of a certain population can expect to live to

  • Measured by crude death rate: approximate number of deaths per 1,000 members

    • Infant mortality rate: deaths of children under the age of 1

      • Important because children are first to suffer from poor health conditions

Global Life Expectancy

Infant Mortality Death Rates

Why are fertility & mortality rates important for sociology?

  • Gives general idea of the health of a population

    • Availability of food & health care

    • Distribution of disease

  • Easily illustrates certain social factors

    • Age at marriage

    • Economic development

    • Education status

    • Attitudes towards reproduction and contraception


  • Def: movement of people from one area to another

  • Emigrate: to LEAVE a country/place

  • Immigrate : to COME TO a country/place

  • You emigrate FROM one country and immigrate TO another country

  • Net migration: people entering – people leaving

    • Net migration for Bahrain: +22, 081 (2012)

Opening Discussion

What’s going on in the world?

Early Human Migration

Global Air Traffic

  • What are reasons people immigrate to new, and often times, strange locations?

  • What effect does migration have on the receiving nation?

  • What are the benefits and side effects of a:

    • Closed immigration policy

    • Open immigration policy

Migration Assignment

  • Find a CURRENT (in the last month) news article discussing HUMAN migration patterns.

  • Print the article

  • Write a 15 sentence summary

    • Which area/country are they discussing?

    • Why are people leaving?

    • Where are they going to?


  • If the population goes unchecked (continues to grow), what problems would societies, and the world, face? (8 sentences)

World Population

Ch. 16.2

P. 536-546

Learning Objective: Understand population pressure and changes on a global scale

Population Growth

  • Current population: 7.2 billion people

  • Year AD 1: ~250 million people

    • AD 1650: 500 million (doubled)

    • AD 1800: 1 billion

    • AD 1930: 2 billion

  • Doubling time: time needed for a population to double; typically takes fewer years to double as the population gets bigger


Global Population Change

Reasons for Growth

  • More population to increase the population

  • Better nutrition and access to food

  • Better medical care

  • More education

  • Engineered plants, animals, and buildings to withstand natural events

Problems with Growth

  • Thomas Malthus (1798):

    • Population will outpace food supply

    • Poor have larger families and any additional income would incur more births

  • Overcame assumption with ability to grow more food (utilizing scientific discoveries and changing previous habits

Demographic Transition Model

Dem. Tran. Model 2

Population Growth Rates

Controlling the Population

  • Government decisions to halt population increase in their countries

  • How?

    • Family planning services (birth control, education)

    • Sterilization programs

    • Disincentives (being punished or not receiving rights/privileges for not following rules)

    • Fines

China’s One Child Policy

  • Rural families allowed to have 2 children if first is a female or disabled

  • Ethnic minorities exempt

  • Only child parents allowed to have 2 kids

  • Originally started in 1970s as a 2-child policy to reduce the strain on public services

  • Fines vary as it is a formula based on individual income

  • How do government decisions in your personal life affect the larger society?

  • Do they (gov’t) have the right to interfere with personal privacy?

Population Pyramids

  • Purpose: shows the age and sex of a population

  • Helpful to show dependents (<15 & >64)

  • What problems arise when there is a “graying” of the population (lots of older people)?

  • What problems are there when there are a lot of young dependents?

  • What services will be needed to support old and young dependents?


  • What are pros and cons of living in a city? (8 sent.)

The Urban Transition

Ch. 16.3

P. 548-554

Learning Objective: Why do cities develop and what problems arise?

Push & Pull

  • Push factors:

    • Why people leave a place

  • Pull factors:

    • Why people move to a new location

Why Cities Develop

  • Consider where cities spring up

    • Why did New York, Boston, London, Paris, Baghdad, Cairo, Istanbul become such large and important cities?


  • Too many people come to the city

  • Unable to supply people with jobs or housing

  • Services become overwhelmed

Central City Problems

  • Wealthy people able to move away from inner city to SUBURBS

    • Businesses and jobs follow the people out to suburbs

    • Leaves decrepit buildings

  • Minorities and low income people cannot escape central city

    • No money to support those who need it most

City and Soc

  • Industrial Revolution saw people move from agricultural/rural areas to urban areas (cities)

  • Sociology created by understanding challenges that present itself when various people share a common space

Urban Ecology

Ch. 16.4

p. 556-560

Learning Objective: The effect of city design

Urban Ecology

  • Relationships between people and their city environment

  • 4 theories of city growth

    • Concentric zone

    • Sector

    • Multiple nuclei

    • Peripheral

Concentric Zone Theory

  • Growth starts in the central city and circular areas grow out from there

  • “Bull’s Eye Model” or “Burgess Model”

  • “Heart” of city is CBD (central business district)

    • Made up of major gov’t/private buildings and most important businesses

  • Highly influenced by those with money (able to buy land and use it for whatever their purposes are)

  • Example: Chicago

Concentric Zones

  • Zone in Transition: Lots of change occurring

    • Invasion of the CBD into the next zone

    • Residents leave as more businesses move in

    • Zone doesn’t always become incorporated into CBD

  • Workingmen’s Homes: “Blue collar” jobs

  • Residential Zone: Middle and Upper Middle Class living (“White collar” professions)

  • Commuter’s Zone: Upper class living

Sector Theory

  • Emphasizes transportation routeswhich come from CBD to different zones

  • Growth of urban activities expand along roads, rivers, and railways

  • Does NOT take into account the automobile which makes trade easier

  • Example: Seattle, San Francisco

Sector Theory Model

Multiple Nuclei Theory

  • Influenced by geographic or historical influence, NOT the CBD

  • City has several “centers,” which based on their use attract certain uses while repelling others

  • Works for cities that aren’t described by the concentric zone or sector theories

  • Greater movement because of higher car ownership

  • Example: Boston

Multiple Nuclei Theory Model

Peripheral Theory

  • Focuses on the importance of suburbs around the central city

  • Suburbs now contain elements of central city and thus do not need a CBD or other sectors

  • Better suited for newer cities who do not focus on the CBD

Sim City 3000

  • Groups no more than 4

  • Create a city (drawn, computer generated)

  • Use models from p. 557 (labeled, color coded)

    • Why did you choose that model (benefits)

  • Must include key/legend

  • Resources available to your country/city

  • Reasons people would come (pull factors)

  • Overall population ( example: Somewhereville, pop. 790,561)

  • Must include services

    • Schools, hospitals, fire/police, gov’t offices, parks, post offices, restaurants

  • Infrastructure

    • Roads, trains, metros, bus, futuristic transport

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