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Animal Unit. November 8, 2010. Multicellular Organisms. Animals are multicellular organisms. Cells. In multicellular organisms, different cells have different jobs.

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Animal Unit

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Animal unit

Animal Unit

November 8, 2010

Multicellular organisms

Multicellular Organisms

  • Animals are multicellular organisms.



  • In multicellular organisms, different cells have different jobs.

  • In a multicellular organism the cells are organized in ways that enable them to survive and reproduce. (In a single-celled organism, all the functions of life are performed by one cell.)

Cells are specialized

Cells are Specialized

For Example

  • Blood cells carry oxygen

  • Nerve cells send and receive signals

  • Skin cells provide protection

  • Muscle cells produce movement



  • Cells that work together to carry out a job are organized into tissue.



  • Cells of the same type are organized into tissue.

  • Tissue is a group of cells that work together.

    For Example

    A muscle is muscle tissue that is made up of many muscle cells.



  • Tissues are organized into organs. Each organ has a particular function (job).



  • Organs are structures that are made up of different tissues. Organs have particular functions.

    For Example

    The heart is an organ that functions as a pump. It has muscle tissue, which pumps the blood, and nerve tissue, which signals when to pump.

Organ system

Organ System

  • Organs are part of different organ systems that meet specific needs of the organism.

Organ systems and the organism

Organ systems and the Organism

  • Different organ systems take care of specific needs.

    For Example

    Nervous System –enables a response to changing conditions.

    Muscular System – produces movement and supplies heat.

    Respiratory Systems – takes in oxygen and releases carbon dioxide.

Animal unit

  • Circulatory System – delivers oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.

  • Digestive System – breaks down food int a usable form.

    Organ systems allow multicellular organisms to obtain large amounts of energy, process large amounts of materials, respond to changes in the environment, and reproduce.



  • Together, cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems form an organism.

Levels of complexity

Levels of Complexity

This organization is called the levels of complexity.

Cells→Tissue→Organs→Organ System

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Specialized structures perform specific functions at all levels of complexity.

For Example:

Leaves on trees

Wings on birds



  • All animals need energy, materials, and living space.

  • Animal get energy and materials from food.

  • Animals have different adaptations and behaviors for meeting their needs.

  • Animals are consumers (they get food from their environment).

  • Most animals have body systems, including tissues and organs.

  • Animals interact with the environment and other animals.



  • Most animals are invertebrates (animals that do not have backbones).

  • Most invertebrate animals are small.

  • Invertebrates can be found just about everywhere (from frozen tundra to tropical forests). Some invertebrates live in water and others survive in deserts.

  • Many organism live inside other organisms.

Animals that are invertebrates

Animals That Are Invertebrates

  • Crickets

  • Oysters

  • Sea stars

  • Earthworms

  • Ants

  • Spiders

  • Sponge

    Where do they live?

Large invertebrates

Large Invertebrates

  • Even though most invertebrates are small a Giant Squid can grow to 18 meters long and can weigh over 450 kilograms.

Six groups of invertebrates page 124

Six Groups of Invertebratespage 124

  • Sponges (the simplest animals on Earth). p125

  • Cnidarians (have a central opening surrounded by tentacles). p128

  • Worms (soft, tube-shaped bodies and a distinct head). p132

  • Mollusks ( Have a muscular foot, most have shells – Example: clams, snails, octopuses). Include bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods.p136

  • Echinoderms (water animals that have a central opening for taking in food, have a water vascular system and tube feet – Example: sea stars, sand dollars).p139

  • Arthropods ( have legs, some have wings, are found on land in air and in water – Example: insects, spiders, crabs millipedes). Includes insects, crustaceans, and arachnids.p142



  • Invertebrate

  • Sponge

  • Sessile

  • Larva

  • Cnidarian

  • Tentacles

  • Mobile

  • Mollusk

  • Gill

  • Lung



  • Echinoderm

  • arthropod

  • Radial symmetry

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Exoskeleton

  • Molting

  • insect

  • Metamorphosis

  • segmented

Questions to consider

Questions to Consider

  • Which group of animals are most abundant?

  • Is a spider an insect?

  • How are all invertebrates alike?

  • What is the process called when arthropods shed their exoskeleton?

  • Which invertebrate always have three body segments: a head, a thorax, and an abdomen?



  • 1. Arthropods are the most abundant group of animals.

  • 2. A spider is an arachnid. Insects, arachnids, and crustaceans are examples of a larger group of invertebrates called arthropods.

  • 3. All invertebrates lack a backbone.

  • 4. As arthropods grow, the y shed their exoskeleton in a process called molting.

  • 5. Adult insects always have a head, thorax, and adomen.

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