The dawn of genetic testing
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The Dawn of Genetic Testing. Rachel Wilson. Stance. Prenatal genetic testing has the potential to create a eugenic society, and should be used with care and objectivity. Eugenics. Measures intended to improve the qualities of a human population by control of inherited characteristics.

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The Dawn of Genetic Testing

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The Dawn of Genetic Testing

Rachel Wilson


Stance

  • Prenatal genetic testing has the potential to create a eugenic society, and should be used with care and objectivity.


Eugenics

Measures intended to improve the qualities of a

human population by control of inherited

characteristics.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=48-hnujqpoA&feature=fvst

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lP1cCjBkWZU&feature=related


Ancient Eugenics

  • 800 B.C.- The Spartan culture inspected each newborn to determine if they would be of value to society.

  • By the start of the first millennium, only 1,000 adult Spartan males remained.


Modern Eugenics

  • 1798- Rise of Malthusianism

  • 1800’s- “Idiot asylums” appear in the U.S.

  • 1883- Francis Galton

  • 1899- Dr. Harry Sharp

  • 1907- Involuntary sterilization legalized in Indiana

  • 1924- Immigration Restriction Act


Modern Eugenics

  • 1927- Buck v. Bell

  • 1945- End of WWII, as many as six million people had been killed as a result of Hitler’s Final Solution.

  • 1985- South Carolina is the last state to repeal its sterilization laws

  • 1989- Human Genome Project


Beginnings of Genetics

  • 1866- Mendel

  • 1953- Structure of DNA discovered


Prenatal Genetic Testing

  • Any number of screening and diagnostic tests that can be done during pregnancy in order to detect genetic disorders .

  • Least invasive

  • 1st Trimester: CVS and first trimester screen

  • 2nd Trimester: Amniocentesis, cordocentesis, quad screen

  • 3rd Trimester: BPP and non-stress test


Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis

  • An assisted reproductive technology that allows an embryo to be tested for genetic abnormalities and is used in conjunction with IVF treatments so that the healthiest embryos can be selected for implantation.

  • Uses: identify disease, identify chromosomal abnormalities, identify pre-dispositions for late onset diseases (controversial), Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) matching


Genetics, Prenatal Testing, and PGD

  • 1790- First case of artificial insemination

  • 1884- First successful sperm donation

  • 1954- First legal case heard in Illinois

  • 1961- PKU

  • 1978- Louise Brown is born

  • 1983- Huntington’s

  • 1990- PGD used for the first time


IVF process interrupted for PGD

Normal IVF Process


  • Achondroplasia

  • Adenosine deaminase deficiency

  • Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

  • Alzheimer's disease (AAP gene)

  • Beta thalasemia

  • Cystic fibrosis

  • Epidermolysis bullosa

  • Fanconi anemia

  • Gaucher's disease

  • Hemophilia A and B

  • Huntington's disease

  • Muscular dystrophy (Duchenne and Becker)

  • Myotonic dystrophy

  • Neurofibromatosis type I

  • OTC deficiency

  • P53 cancers

  • Phenylketonuria

  • Retinitis pigmentosa

  • Sickle cell disease

  • Spinal muscular atrophy

  • Tay Sachs disease

  • Any genetically abnormal embryos (i.e. Trisomy 21, 13.)


Other Concerns

  • Affect on abortion

  • Abortion rates in China

  • Financials

  • Use for detecting late-onset diseases

  • Religious and ethical concerns

  • Lack of legal cases


Future

  • Too personal, objectivity is difficult

  • The laws and society need to catch up


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