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Review. Dynamical systems theory explains change in systems that exchange energy with the surrounding environment DST explains how behavior changes through self organization typically no one teaches a child to run… speed is the catalyst. Motor Development.

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Review
Review

  • Dynamical systems theory explains change in systems that exchange energy with the surrounding environment

  • DST explains how behavior changes through self organization

    • typically no one teaches a child to run…

    • speed is the catalyst


Motor development

Motor Development

Re-conceptualizing Developmental Change in Movement Patterns


Life span motor development

Life Span Motor Development

Evolution of a Theory

& Research Program


In the beginning a clinician
In the beginning...a clinician!

  • a knowledge of neurodevelopmental theory

  • a fascination with righting and equilibrium reactions

  • a love for movement analysis


Neurodevelopmental theory
Neurodevelopmental Theory

  • development is a process of reflex integration

  • lower level automatic behavior gives way to higher level volitional control

Motor Ctx

Midbrain

Brain stem Level

Spinal Level


Neurodevelopmental theory1
Neurodevelopmental Theory

  • Progressive

  • Positive

  • Add Abilities

  • End State Oriented (maturity is the end state)


Neurodevelopmental theory2
Neurodevelopmental Theory

  • CNS = Cause of Change


Biological theory of aging
Biological Theory of Aging...

  • Regressive

  • Negative

  • Loss of Abilities

  • End state oriented (end state = death)


Life span theory
Life Span Theory

  • Development followed by Aging



Milani comparetti my personal control variable
MilaniComparetti = my personal Control Variable!






Roberton s component model
Roberton’s Component Model

Developmental Stages of Throwing

Reliability of assigning Stages

Developmental Change within

Components of Body Action


Component model of development
Component Model of Development

  • Upper Limbs

  • Axial Region

  • Lower Limbs



Three descending control systems
Three descending control systems

  • medial system – controls axial region

  • lateral system – controls proximal limb movements

    • in primate studies the lateral system allowed for differentiated arm movements

  • cortical system – controls distal movements

    • in primate studies allowed individuated finger movments


Straying into systems models
Straying into Systems models

  • Not just one big hierarchy

  • Roberton was studying development in those systems!


Applying roberton s method
Applying Roberton’s Method

  • Taking it to a new task

  • From Throwing to Righting



Righting reactions
Righting Reactions

  • Developed during 1st year of life

    • Rolling to prone

    • Up on hands and knees

    • Into sitting

    • Quadruped to kneeling

    • Kneeling to Half Kneel

    • Up to Stand


Righting reactions1
Righting Reactions

  • Movements couple together to assume erect stance

  • Foundation for Physical Independence


Righting reactions2
Righting Reactions

  • First Rotational movements then Symmetrical

  • But observations of young adults in PT school revealed all were not using symmetrical form


Studies of righting
Studies of Righting

  • Rising to Standing from the Floor

    • Young Adults


Why young adults
Why Young Adults?

  • variability in PT students impressive

    • a very few showed symmetrical form when rising

  • Roberton examined variability to get stages of throwing

    • Lifespan perspective

      • hypothesis: variation was “developmental”


Sequences
Sequences

  • If person is in a stage he/she shows stable behavior characteristic of that stage

  • If a person is moving from one stage to another

    • shows variable behavior characteristic of those two neighboring stages


Studies of righting1
Studies of Righting

  • Rising to Standing from the Floor

    • Young Adults

      • Variability continued to be impressive across 10 trials

      • Described action in each of three components of body action

        • able to identify neighboring stages for each body region



Studies of righting2
Studies of Righting

  • Rising to Standing from the Floor

    • Children

      • Age differences confirmed sequences of movement pattern development identified from adult patterns of variation

      • Component Model affirmed


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