Organic nutrient management of raspberries in a high tunnel
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Organic Nutrient Management of Raspberries in a High Tunnel. By Jesse Dahir-Kanehl, Horticulture Masters Student Advisor – Prof. Rebecca Harbut. Quick Research Intro. Effects of high tunnel environment on microbes and mineralization of N, P, K

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Organic Nutrient Management of Raspberries in a High Tunnel

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Organic Nutrient Management of Raspberries in a High Tunnel

By Jesse Dahir-Kanehl, Horticulture Masters Student

Advisor – Prof. Rebecca Harbut


Quick Research Intro

  • Effects of high tunnel environment on microbes and mineralization of N, P, K

  • Mineralization differences seen in plant tissue, yields, and berry size?

  • Lack of leaching > higher salt buildup

  • Increase in fruit quality

  • Decreases in wind leading to taller plants

  • Decrease in pest pressure (Japanese Beetle) and change in pest complex

  • Decrease in disease pressure


Background

  • High School FFA Greenhouse

  • Bachelors at UW-Madison, Horticulture

  • Organic Vegetable and Fruit Farm

  • Hobbies: brewing, gardening, biking, folk

  • Coops: Babcock House


Overview

1. High Tunnel (HT) Production

a. Definition

b. Why?

c. Disadvantages

d. Uses in Wisconsin

e. Research being done with HTs

2. Organic Fruit Production in Wisconsin

a. Problems

b. Organic fruit farm/orchard management

c. Why?

d. Research being done

3. My Research Project – No data

a. What’s being studied

b. Where

c. When

d. Why

e. Results

f. Spreading the word


High Tunnel Production

  • Temporary season extending structure

  • Arched roof & high sides – snow shedding

  • Great for tall crops or large machinery

  • Relatively new tool, but why use it?


Why?

  • Higher temps > higher mineralization

  • Extends season

  • Exclusion of rain – target irrigation

  • Reduce application rates

  • Increases fruit quality

  • Reduces disease and pest pressure

  • Changes pest complex

  • Reduces wind, increases height

  • Marketing


Temperature


Primocane-fruiting Raspberry Production in High Tunnels in a Cold Region of the Upper Midwestern United States (Yao and Rosen, 2011)


Disadvantages

  • Relatively expensive

  • Requires high return

  • Salt buildup

  • Use in WI

Stephen McDonough, NCSU, 2008


How are they used in Wisconsin?

  • Mostly season extension

  • Largely vegetables – tomatoes

  • Nurseries

  • Some fruits - raspberries & strawberries

  • National Resources Conservation Service program – 2010, 184 tunnels, $763k

NRCS, 2009


Research on HT

  • Small Fruit Production in HT, Demchak, 2009, Penn State

  • HT Tree Fruit Production, Lang, 2009, Michigan State

  • CO2 Enrichment May Increase Yield of Field-grown Red Raspberry under HT, Mochizuki et al., 2010, U of California and California State

  • Engineering Principles Impacting HT Environements, Giacomelli, 2009, University of Arizona

  • Trends in Soil Quality Under HTs, Knewston et al., 2010, Kansas State University

  • Yields and Economics of HTs for Production of Warm-season Vegetable Crops, Waterer, 2003, University of Saskatchewan

  • HT and Organic Horticulture: Compost, Food, Safety, and Crop Quality, Milner et al., 2009, USDA Maryland

  • + University of Georgia, Cornell, Colorado State, University of Minnesota, University of Arkansas


University of Arkansas, 2011


Overview

1. High Tunnel (HT) Production

a. Definition

b. Why?

c. Disadvantages

d. Uses in Wisconsin

e. Research being done with HTs

2. Organic Fruit Production in Wisconsin

a. Problems

b. Organic fruit farm/orchard management

c. Why?

d. Research being done

3. My Research Project – No data

a. What’s being studied

b. Where

c. When

d. Why

e. Results

f. Spreading the word


Problems in WI

  • Maintaining high soil quality

  • Hot + humid = disease

  • Pests

  • Perennial system means perennial weeds

  • Overcoming common beliefs of perfection

Pestmall, 2010

Mike Wakefield, 2011


Organic Management

  • Soil amendments

  • Pest control

  • Disease control

  • Weed control

  • Marketing – processing

Beverage Express, 2011


High Tunnel Tree Fruit Production: The Final Frontier? (Lang, 2009)


Why?

  • Price premium

  • Marketing

  • Sustainability

  • Personal beliefs

Golden State Fruit, 2012


Research

  • Pest control

  • Weed control

  • Soil amendments

  • Increase density

  • Season extension

  • Breeding

  • Postharvest

  • Nutrition

  • Sustainability – economic & environmental


Overview

1. High Tunnel (HT) Production

a. Definition

b. Why?

c. Disadvantages

d. Uses in Wisconsin

e. Research being done with HTs

2. Organic Fruit Production in Wisconsin

a. Problems

b. Organic fruit farm/orchard management

c. Why?

d. Research being done

3. My Research Project – No data

a. What’s being studied

b. Where

c. When

d. Why

e. Results

f. Spreading the word


My Research

  • Organic fertilizers – cow manure, mushroom, fish emulsion, urea, none

  • Varieties – Caroline & Heritage

  • Mineralization

  • Electrical Conductivity

  • Yield

  • Hatch and Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education grants


Where

  • West Madison Research Station

  • Plano silt loam & Kegonsa silt loam

  • HT and outside – 96’ x 30’

  • Cole Murphy – Fond du lac

  • Peninsular Research Station


When

  • 2011 – establishment year

  • 2012 – soil data, yields, etc

  • 2013 – soil data


Why?

  • Fertilization recommendations for HT

  • Application times

  • Understanding of HT environment

  • For the grower

100 Mile Challenge


Spreading the word

  • Midwest Organic and Sustainable Education Service conference

  • Publish in a journal

  • Center for Integrated Agriculture Systems

  • Talk to professors, extension agents, producers

  • Other conferences


Conclusion

  • HT

    • Cost

    • Yield, season, quality

    • Pest pressure

    • Reliability and control

  • Organic Fruit

    • Price premium

    • Difficulties

    • Inputs

  • Research

    • Fertilizer recommendation


Further Research

  • Adapting HT to tall fruit crops or vice versa

  • Other crops? – borderline hardy plants

  • Yield modeling inside HT environment

  • Effects of dry walkways on soil

  • Further studies into HT multiple effects on soil microbes and biology


Questions and Comments

Kathy Kitchens Downie, 2012


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