AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER

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AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER

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1. AMERICA AS A WORLD POWER Chapter 10-4

2. TR & the World When TR became President he refused to allow the imperial powers of Europe to control the world’s political & economic destiny Using the Open Door Policy TR would increase the U.S. presence in Asia by settling the dispute between Russia & Japan

3. TR as the Peacemaker The issue between Russia & Japan was their competition over Korea Early in the war Japan was destroying the Russian Army & Navy These victories did come at a cost as Japan began to run out of men & money As a result the Japanese secretly approached TR & asked him to negotiate a peace settlement TR agreed & was able to barter a settlement known as the Treaty of Portsmouth TR would win the Nobel Prize for his efforts

4. Panama Canal Once President TR believed that the U.S. needed a canal that cut across Central America The canal would drastically cut time from travel between the Atlantic & Pacific Oceans The U.S. had gained the rights to build the canal through the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty with Great Britain in 1901 The U.S. had two choices to build the canal It would be constructed through Nicaragua or through Panama A French company had started the canal through Panama & was eager to sell its claim to the U.S. The U.S. decided to accept the French offer & build the canal through Panama which was under the control of Columbia When negotiations broke down, the Panamanians revolted The U.S. sent in war ships to protect the Panamanians Within 15 days the U.S. had a treaty with the Panamanians to build the canal

5. Constructing the Canal Work would begin in 1904 The cost would be $380 million The canal would open on August 15, 1914

6. The Roosevelt Corollary By the late 19th century many Latin American countries were in deep debt to European banks TR feared that if the Latin American countries defaulted on the loans the Europeans nations might intervene TR was determined that the U.S. would be the dominant power in Central America TR would remind the European nations of the Monroe Doctrine, which demanded that they stay out of the affairs of Latin America Later in 1904 TR would ad the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine The corollary stated that the U.S. would now use force to protect the economic interests of Latin America

7. Dollar Diplomacy During the next decade the U.S. would use their powers to stabilize affairs in Latin America In Nicaragua for example the U.S. arranged for American bankers to loan money to the government to prevent default This allowed the bankers to gain control of the national banking system as well as the state owned RR system This policy of controlling another nation through finances became known as “Dollar Diplomacy”

8. Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy The Monroe Doctrine under President Monroe warned other nations not to intervene in Latin America & under TR & his corollary he warned of military intervention, under President Wilson he stated that the U.S. had the right to deny any government that the U.S. viewed as repressive, undemocratic, or aggressive to the U.S. This policy would pressure nations of the Western hemisphere to establish democratic governments Mexico would be the first to test this new policy

9. The Mexican Revolution Mexico had long been ruled by Porfirio Diaz who was a friend to the U.S. Diaz allowed for American investment which led to much of the economic control being heavily influenced by American businessmen This influence angered many Mexicans as they did not see the wealth that was generated by the foreign dominated businessmen In 1911 a revolt led by Francisco Madero overthrew Diaz Madero promised democratic reforms but was unable to satisfy the demands of all the different groups of people After two years of instability Madero was assassinated & replaced by General Victoriano Huerta Wilson would refuse to recognize the new government calling it “a government of butchers”

10. Intervention In Mexico Wilson would wait for an opportunity to act against Huerta In 1914 the opportunity would present itself as Huerta would arrest a small group of American sailors The Sailors would be immediately released & an apology was made Wilson would use the arrests as the rational for an invasion The marines would land at Veracruz & capture the important port city The U.S. & Mexico were at the brink of war when other Latin American countries stepped in the mediate the situation In the end the Huerta regime collapsed & Wilson withdrew the troops & recognized the Carranza government

11. Rebellion In Mexico Carranza was now in charge of Mexico but he did not have the support of the Mexican people Two men that would lead the revolt were Poncho Villa & Emiliano Zapata Villa talked of friendship but was on a mission to keep Americans out of Mexico He began attacking/killing Americans Wilson would respond by sending General John J. Pershing into Mexico to capture Villa This would anger Carranza & the Mexican people Forces from both sides would clash with Carranza would demand the withdraw of U.S. troops making war inevitable

12. Rebellion In Mexico In the end both sides backed down The U.S. was facing war in Europe & needed peace at its borders Carranza would rule but fail as a leader In 1920 Alvaro Obregon making the end to civil war & the beginning of reform The U.S. intervention in Mexico demonstrated the American imperialist attitudes of this period

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