4 pengenalan proses pembangunan kurikulum
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4. Pengenalan Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum. Pembangunan kurikulum merupakan satu proses yang komprehensif melibatkan; 1. Analisis tujuan/matlamat 2. Reka bentuk satu kurikulum/program 3. Pelaksanaan kurikulum/program 4. Penilaian. Pengenalan Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum.

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4. Pengenalan Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum

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4. Pengenalan Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum

  • Pembangunan kurikulum merupakan satu proses yang komprehensif melibatkan;

    1. Analisis tujuan/matlamat

    2. Reka bentuk satu kurikulum/program

    3. Pelaksanaan kurikulum/program

    4. Penilaian

Pengenalan Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum

  • Satu proses yang deduktif dan agak sistematik

  • Apabila pertimbangan nilai yang utama/penting telah dilaksanakan berhubung tujuan/matlamat, mengkonsepsikan satu kurikulum untuk mereka bentuk satu kurikulum selanjutnya dapat dilakukan.

  • Setiap reka bentuk mempunyai penekanannya yang tersendiri.

Pengenalan Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum

  • Kerja membangunkan kurikulum selalunya mengandungi andaian-andaian yang apabila diwartakan (formalized) akan menjadi falsafah.

  • Falsafah atau satu himpunan andaian-andaian ini membantu dalam pembangunan kurikulum dengan menjadi kriteria untuk membuat keputusan (establish the “criteria” for making decision.

  • Apabila tujuan telah diputuskan, selanjutnya matlamat, objektif dan standad digunakan untuk membangunkan kurikulum.

  • Pembangunan dilakukan melalui “curriculum maps, framework and the alignment process”

Pengenalan Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum

  • Analisis keperluan digunakan untuk menaksirkan keperluan atau efikasi sesebuah kurikulum.

  • Kurikulum yang dihasilkan mestilah sesuai dengan pelajar yang disasarkan.

Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum

  • Proses pembangunan kurikulum adalah mengikut langkah-langkah berikut:

  • Penyataan Falsafah (Philosophy Statement)

  • Program Concept

  • Matlamat

  • Objektif

  • Reka Bentuk Kurikulum/Program

  • Analisis Keperluan

  • Pelaksanaan Kurikulum

  • Penilaian Kurikulum

Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum

Kriteria untuk Membuat Keputusan

- Prinsip/Rasional untuk membuat sesuatu keputusan dalam memilih matlamat/objektif dan isi kandungan dikenali sebagai kriteria dalam usaha membangunkan sesuatu kurikulum; antara contohnya adalah rasional untuk membentuk sikap bertanggungjawab, atau ketrampilan.

Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum


  • FalsafahPendidikanmemanduprosespembangunankurikulumdenganmenyediakankeutamaandanmenjawabpersoalan yang berkaitdengannilai (Educational philosophy guides all curriculum development by setting priorities and answering value-laden questions).

  • Philosophies set the parameters of definitions of curriculum, thereby defining the scope of curriculum development process.

  • Di Malaysia FPK menjadiasasuntukprosespembangunankurikulum.


  • Program Concept


Concepts for Child-Focused Program

1. Philosophy Statement

We desire in each school, kindergarten through adult education, a program that will focus on the individual student to provide learning experiences in the affective, cognitive and psychomotor areas.


2. Program concepts

  • A program of individual instruction will be implemented

  • A basic diagnostic-prescriptive approach to teaching will be used

  • A variety of materials, both commercial and teacher-made, will be used

  • A flexible schedule will be implemented

  • Instructional assistants will perform teaching, planning and clerical tasks

    f. Instructional leaders (teachers) will serve as facilitators of program planning and implementers

Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum

Matlamat (Goals) dan ObjektifGoals represent intended outcome or result.

  • Goals can be thought of having increasing levels of detail.

  • Global goals are nearly philosophical statements.

  • Goals may be broken down into subparts.

  • Finally in greater detail, the goals may be stated in terms of instructional or behavioral outcomes.

Proses Pembangunan kurikulum

  • The scope of the educational programs can be determined from the global statements, but it is the objectives (detailed goal statements) that define the true purpose of the curriculum.

  • When goals reach the classroom level, they usually become behavioral and focus on what the students learns as opposeed to what the teacher does.

  • Such linkage is necessary for program evaluation to be viable and for instructional accountability to exist.

Proses Pembangunan Kurikulum

  • An example of this reduction can be given using “thinking skills” as a focus.

  • At the general level (global) the goal might be “highest priority will be given to the development of sensitive, autonomous, thinking human beings”.

  • More specifically, this goal may be targeted or defined as “Critical thinking skills will be mastered by all students prior to graduation”.

  • Even more specific (behavioral) goals, now an objective, would be “Students will evidence critical thinking by demonstrating the ability to classify, compare and contrast, follow directions, and reason using both inductive and deductive logic on completion of the course.”


Reka Bentuk Kurikulum

  • Curriculum designs are most observable as “programs” and as content organizers.

  • Ex. Program such as the “middle school design”. Contoh di Malaysia Program KBSR atau KBSM

  • Program “middle school design” as based on a human development rationale (as opposed to a content design) and has a three-part curriculum emphasis: academics, personal learning and skills for continued learning.


The Middle School as a Program Design

1. Philosophy & Program Concept

  • A. Child-centered

  • B. Holistic knowledge structure is developed

  • C. Thinking skills are priority goals

  • D. Safety is essential

  • E. Students’ development needs are important


2. Curriculum

  • Academic excellence / social competence

    1. Academic core , 2. Exploration and developmental program

  • Personal development

    c. Mastery of continuous learning skills

Proses pembangunan kurikulum

3. Organization

A. Interdisciplinary teams

B. Advisement program

c. Block scheduling and flexible scheduling within blocks

D .Exploratory and developmental experiences (elective classes, wheels and exploration credits, mini-course, clubs, activities, interest groups, intramurals)

E. Team planning and shared decision making

F. Integrated curriculum

G. In-service education and professional development

Proses Pembangunan kurikulum

4. Implementing Strategies

  • Cooperative learning

  • Interdisciplinary teaching

  • Learning styles

  • Student services and career planning systems

  • Home-school partnerships and communications

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