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Chapter 5: Motivation. Introduction. Fierce competition across industries and a wide basket of choices and offerings from companies makes motivating employees vital to any business Focus on a variety of key motivating plans ranging from monetary incentives to rewards and recognition.

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Fierce competition across industries and a wide basket of choices and offerings from companies makes motivating employees vital to any business

Focus on a variety of key motivating plans ranging from monetary incentives to rewards and recognition

Frederick herzberg kita
Frederick Herzberg: KITA

  • Negative Physical KITA

  • Negative Psychological KITA

  • Positive KITA

    Either positive nor negative KITA instills motivation – it only results in short-term movement

Frederick herzberg two factor theory
Frederick Herzberg: Two-factor Theory

Hygiene factors (extrinsic to the job):

  • Company policy and administration

  • Supervision

  • Interpersonal relationships

  • Salary

  • Status

  • Security

    Motivator factors (intrinsic to the job):

  • Achievement

  • Recognition for achievement

  • The work

  • Responsibility

  • Growth or advancement

The job characteristics model
The Job Characteristics Model

Five core job characteristics:

  • Skill variety

  • Task identity

  • Task significance

  • Autonomy

  • Feedback

    Followed by three critical psychological states:

  • Experienced meaningfulness

  • Experienced responsibility

  • Knowledge of results

    Results in:

  • Increased work satisfaction

  • Performance

  • Reduced absence

  • Employee turnover

The job characteristics model1
The Job Characteristics Model

In general, leaders must initiate and develop their social capital by focusing on three aspects:

  • The structural dimension: the overall patterns of relationships in the organization

  • The relational dimension: the nature of connections between individuals in the organization

  • The cognitive dimension: the extent to which employees within a social network share a common perspective or understanding

    High social capital directs high internal motivation leading to high performance and making employees more successful in achieving goals

Mcgregor s theory x y
McGregor’s Theory X & Y

Theory X:

  • Management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work.

  • Management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed

  • A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level

  • Employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can

    Theory Y:

  • Management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control.

  • Managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed.

  • Given the right conditions, most people will want to do well at work.

  • The satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation.

Mcgregor s theory x y1
McGregor’s Theory X & Y

Theory Y is a process of:

  • Creating opportunities

  • Releasing potential

  • Removing obstacles

  • Encouraging growth

  • Providing guidance

  • “Management by objectives” and not “Management by control”

    The application of Theory Y can be slow, and progress in typically done in small steps including:

  • Decentralization and Delegation

  • Job Enlargement

  • Participation and Consultative Management

  • Performance Appraisal

Exercise and practice routines
Exercise and Practice Routines

  • Form groups of 4- 6 people

  • Each person writes down three things that motivates them in their job and three things that would motivate them even more

  • Present your answers to each other

  • Agree on one factor that would motivate you all even more

  • Class discussion on the groups’ motivation factors

Bibliography and reference materials
Bibliography and Reference Materials

Garg, P. & Renu, R. (2006). New model of job design: motivating employees' performance. Journal of Management Development. Vol. 25 (6), pp. 572-587.

Hertzberg, Frederick. (1968). One More Time: How Do YouMotivateEmployees? Harvard Business Review. Vol 46, pp. 53-62.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. PsychologicalReview. Vol. 50 (4), pp. 370-396.

McGregor, Douglas M. (1957). The Human Side of Enterprise. Management Review. November 1957, pp. 41-49.