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Wenstrom Bible Ministries Marion, Iowa Pastor-Teacher Bill Wenstrom www.wenstrom.org. Wednesday November 3, 2010 Jonah: Jonah 3:1-3a-The Lord Commands Jonah A Second Time To Go Immediately To Nineveh To Proclaim A Message And The Prophet Obeys Lesson # 36.

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Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom www wenstrom org

Wenstrom Bible MinistriesMarion, IowaPastor-Teacher Bill Wenstromwww.wenstrom.org


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

Wednesday November 3, 2010Jonah: Jonah 3:1-3a-The Lord Commands Jonah A Second Time To Go Immediately To Nineveh To Proclaim A Message And The Prophet ObeysLesson # 36


Please turn in your bibles to jonah 3 1

Please turn in your Bibles to Jonah 3:1.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

This evening we will study the fourth scene in the book of Jonah that appears in Jonah 3:1-3a, which records the Lord commanding Jonah a second time to go immediately to Nineveh in order to proclaim a message from Him to the Ninevites and this time the prophet obeys.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

Jonah 3:1, “Now the word of the Lord came to Jonah the second time, saying, 2 ‘Arise, go to Nineveh the great city and proclaim to it the proclamation which I am going to tell you.’


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

3 So Jonah arose and went to Nineveh according to the word of the Lord. Now Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, a three days’ walk.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

4 Then Jonah began to go through the city one day’s walk; and he cried out and said, ‘Yet forty days and Nineveh will be overthrown.’


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

5 Then the people of Nineveh believed in God; and they called a fast and put on sackcloth from the greatest to the least of them.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

6 When the word reached the king of Nineveh, he arose from his throne, laid aside his robe from him, covered himself with sackcloth and sat on the ashes.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

7 He issued a proclamation and it said, ‘In Nineveh by the decree of the king and his nobles: Do not let man, beast, herd, or flock taste a thing. Do not let them eat or drink water.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

8 But both man and beast must be covered with sackcloth; and let men call on God earnestly that each may turn from his wicked way and from the violence which is in his hands.


9 who knows god may turn and relent and withdraw his burning anger so that we will not perish

9 Who knows, God may turn and relent and withdraw His burning anger so that we will not perish.’


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

10 When God saw their deeds, that they turned from their wicked way, then God relented concerning the calamity which He had declared He would bring upon them. And He did not do it.” (NASU)


Let s look at verse 1 jonah 3 1 now the word of the lord came to jonah the second time saying

Let’s look at verse 1.Jonah 3:1, “Now the word of the Lord came to Jonah the second time, saying.’”


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

Jonah 1:1-3a contains the fourth scene in the book of Jonah and transitions to a new scene that presents a new subject, namely the Lord recomissions Jonah to go to Nineveh.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

This scene is transitional since in the previous scene we have Jonah either at sea, on board the ship or inside the stomach of the great fish but in the fourth scene, the prophet is back on dry land.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

This scene, which is brief, is almost identical to the wording that appears in the opening scene, 1:1-3 with only the phrase בן אמתי “son of Amittai” in 1:1 being replaced with שׁנית “a second time” in 3:1.


In this pericope we do not see the lord rebuking jonah since the storm did that

In this pericope, we do not see the Lord rebuking Jonah since the storm did that.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

Rather, we have simple reiteration of the command by the Lord, which speaks of His grace policy towards Jonah in that though he was worthy of death for disobeying the Lord, the Lord gives him a second chance, which teaches us that God is a God of the second chance.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

There is no mention of Jonah’s rebelliousness or disobedience in this scene since it has been forgiven by the Lord.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

To forgive means to give someone a release from the wrong that he has done to you and means to give up any right of retaliation.


The prophet was a criminal in the eyes of a holy god whose standards are perfection

The prophet was a criminal in the eyes of a holy God whose standards are perfection.


Thus jonah is being treated according to god s grace policy and has been pardoned

Thus, Jonah is being treated according to God’s grace policy and has been pardoned.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

Now, this fourth scene does not say whether Jonah went back to Jerusalem or his hometown, Gath-Hepher and wait for the Lord to recomission him.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

The text simply says that the Lord communicated a message to Jonah a second time to go to Nineveh immediately and proclaim a message that the Lord will give him when he arrives in that great city.


At this point in the narrative jonah has confessed his sin of disobeying the lord and has repented

At this point in the narrative Jonah has confessed his sin of disobeying the Lord and has repented.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

This is indicated by the statements in Jonah 3:3-4, which record Jonah obeying the Lord’s command to go to Nineveh and pronounce judgment against it.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

However, Jonah has not repented concerning his hateful attitude towards the Ninevites as indicated by the statements he makes to the Lord as recorded in Jonah 4:2-3.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

The expression “the word of the Lord came to Jonah” emphasizes with the reader that Jonah received divine authority to proclaim a message of judgment against the city of Nineveh.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

The content of this message is related in verse 4, which echoes God telling Jonah to announce judgment against it in Jonah 1:2.


The exact manner in which jonah received this message is not given

The exact manner in which Jonah received this message is not given.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

God chose to speak to His prophets in various ways whether through dreams or direct communication or through a “still small voice” (1 Kings 19:9-13) or through a whirlwind (Job 38) or earthquake.


A second time indicates that the lord is recomissioning the prophet to go to nineveh

“A second time” indicates that the Lord is recomissioning the prophet to go to Nineveh.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

It also speaks of God’s grace and mercy, which flows from His attribute of love since it indicates that the prophet is getting a second chance.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

“Arise, go” is the second person masculine singular qal active imperative form of the verb qum (קוּם) (koom), “arise” and the second person masculine singular qal active imperative form of the verb halak (הָלַך) (haw-lak), “go.”


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

These two verbs form a verbal hendiadys and mean “go immediately” emphasizing the urgency of this command to go to Nineveh.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

Nineveh was one of the capitals of the Assyrian Empire and was located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River in northeastern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, in the area of the city of Mosul).


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

After Jonah’s day it was made the capital of Assyria by Sennacherib (705-681 B.C.), the successor of Sargon II (722-705 B.C.) who destroyed the Northern Kingdom of Israel.


The city of nineveh was destroyed in 612 b c by the medes and the persians

The city of Nineveh was destroyed in 612 B.C. by the Medes and the Persians.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

Its great size is mentioned in Jonah 3:3 which states, “Nineveh was an exceedingly great city, a three days' walk.”


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

Ancient Greek and Roman writers state that it was in the shape of a trapezium and was the largest city in the world in that day, which is confirmed by modern archaeological excavations.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

The New American Commentary writes, “According to the usual manner of transport (camel or donkey caravan), it would have taken approximately one month to traverse this distance. Going by foot would have taken even longer.” (The New American Commentary: Amos, Obadiah, Jonah; page 256)


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

Jonah 3:1, “Now the word of the Lord came to Jonah the second time, saying, 2 ‘Arise, go to Nineveh the great city and proclaim to it the proclamation which I am going to tell you.’”


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

“The great city” is composed of the articular feminine singular form of the noun îr (עִיר) (aw-yar), “the city” and the articular feminine singular form of the adjective gadhol (גָּדֹול) (ga-dol), “great.”


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

As was the case in Jonah 1:2, the adjective gadhol in 3:2 emphasizes the size of the city of Nineveh highlighting its importance so that just as is the size of the city, so is the magnitude of its wickedness (The JPS Bible Commentary: Jonah, page 4).


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

“Proclaim to it” is composed of the second person masculine singular qal active imperative form of the verb qārāʾ (קָרָא) (kaw-raw), “cry” and the preposition ʾěl (אַל) (ale), “to” and the third person feminine singular pronomial suffix hî(ʾ) (הִיא) (hoo), “it.”


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

The verb qārāʾ means “to announce” and unlike in 1:2 when the word was used with the preposition ’al (עַל), “against,” this time it is used here with the preposition ʾěl (אַל) (ale), “to,” which is a marker of persons benefited by an event.


The former has a negative sense indicating god s hostility against the ninevites

The former has a negative sense indicating God’s hostility against the Ninevites.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

The latter suggests that this message will be “for the benefit of” the Ninevites since it will lead to their believing in God and repenting of their wicked conduct.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

So this preposition is actually preparing the reader for this repentance on the part of the Ninevites.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

So the verb qārāʾ means “to announce,” i.e. to make a public announcement of an impending event that will take place in Nineveh, namely its destruction.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

“The proclamation” is composed of the object marker ʾēṯ (אֵת) (oath) and the articular feminine singular form of the noun qerî∙ʾā(h) (קְרִיאָה) (ker-ee-aw), which means “proclamation,” i.e. an official communication which makes appeals for persons. (Dictionary of Biblical Languages with Semantic Domains: Hebrew (Old Testament)


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

The content of this proclamation is not revealed until verse 4, namely that “at the end of forty days, Nineveh will be overthrown!”


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

This proclamation was designed to lead the Ninevites to believe in the Lord and repent of their wicked conduct.


Jonah 3 3a so jonah arose and went to nineveh according to the word of the lord

Jonah 3:3a, “So Jonah arose and went to Nineveh according to the word of the Lord.”


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

This statement is a result clause indicating that Jonah arose and traveled to Nineveh “as a result” of the Lord commanding him to do so.


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

“And” is again the conjunction wa (וָ) (wa), which is joining the verb qum (קוּם) (koom), “rose up” with the second person masculine singular qal active imperative form of the verb halak (הָלַך) (haw-lak), “went” to form a verbal hendiadys.


The former functions adverbially and the second retains its full verbal force

The former functions adverbially and the second retains its full verbal force.


Thus together they mean went immediately

Thus, together they mean “went immediately.”


Wenstrom bible ministries marion iowa pastor teacher bill wenstrom wenstrom

“According to the word of the Lord” indicates that Jonah went immediately to Nineveh, which corresponds to the message communicating to him by the Lord.


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