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Supplementary Topics. Computer Architecture Computer Organization Organization and Architecture History of Computers Generations of Computers Moore’s Law. Computer Architecture (1). Definition? “The design of integrated system which provides a useful tool to the programmer.” (Baer)

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Supplementary topics

Supplementary Topics

  • Computer Architecture

  • Computer Organization

  • Organization and Architecture

  • History of Computers

  • Generations of Computers

  • Moore’s Law


Computer architecture 1

Computer Architecture (1)

  • Definition?

  • “The design of integrated system which provides a useful tool to the programmer.” (Baer)

  • “The study of the structure, behaviour, and design of computers.” (Hayes)

  • “The design of the system specification at a general or subsystem level.” (Abd-Alla)

  • “The art of designing a machine that will be a pleasure to work with.” (Foster)


Computer architecture 2

Computer Architecture (2)

  • “The interface between the hardware and the lowest level software.” (Hennessy and Patterson)

  • Keyword:

    • Design

    • System

    • Structure

    • ArtTool Interface


Computer architecture 3

Computer Architecture (3)

  • Therefore, computer architecture refers to

    • Attributes of a system visible to programmers

    • Attributes that have a direct impact on the execution of programs

  • Attributes

    • Instruction set

    • Data representation

    • I/O mechanisms

    • Addressing techniques


Computer organization

Computer Organization

  • Organization refers to operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications.

  • Attributes: hardware details transparent to programmers

    • Control signals

    • Computer/peripheral interface

    • Memory technology


Architecture organization 1

Architecture & Organization (1)

  • Architecture is attributes visible to programmers

  • Organization is how features areimplemented

  • Example:

    • Architecture: multiply instruction?

    • Organization: hardware multiply unit or done by repeated addition? (how is it implemented?)

  • Example:

    • IBM/370 architecture

    • different models (organizations)


Architecture organization 2

Architecture & Organization (2)

  • Family Concept

    • All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture

    • The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture

    • This gives code compatibility (at least backwards)

  • Organization differs between different versions


History of computers 1

History of Computers (1)

  • Pre-mechanical Era

    • Abacus (ancient China)

  • Mechanical Era (1623 – 1940s)

    • Wilhelm Schickhard (1623)

      • Automatically +, -, x, 

    • Blaise Pascal (1642)

      • Mass produced first working machine (50)

      • Only +, -

    • Gottfried Liebniz (1673)

      • Improved on Pascal’s machine (+, -, x, )


History of computers 2

History of Computers (2)

  • Mechanical Era (cont’d)

    • Charles Babbage (1822)

      • Father of modern computer

      • Automatic computation of math tables

      • Any math operation

      • Punch cards

      • Modern structure: I/O, storage, ALU

      • +: 1 sec.x: 1 min.

    • George Boole (1847)

      • Mathmatical analysis of logic


History of computers 3

History of Computers (3)

  • Mechanical Era (cont’d)

    • Herman Hollerith (1889)

      • Modern day punch card machine

      • Tabulating machine company  predecessor of

    • Konard Zuse (1938)

      • First working mechanical computer, Z1 (later on Z2 – Z4)

      • First programmable computer

      • Binary floating point machine

    • Howard Aiken (1943)

      • Harvard Mark I, built by IBM

      • Implementation of Babbage’s machine

IBM


History of computers 4

History of Computers (4)

  • Summary of Mechanical Era

    • Contributions

      • Reduce calculation time

      • Increase accuracy

    • Drawback

      • Speed: limited by moving parts

      • Cumbersome

      • Expensive

      • Unreliable

  • Entered the Electronic Era (1945 – present)!!


Von neumann turing

von Neumann/Turing

  • Stored Program concept

  • Main memory storing programs and data

  • ALU operating on binary data

  • Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing

  • Input and output equipment operated by control unit

  • Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies

    • IAS

  • Completed 1952: Basis for virtually every machine designed since then


Structure of von neumann machine

Structure of von Neumann machine


Generations of computer

Generations of Computer

  • First generation: Vacuum tube - 1946-1957

  • Second generation: Transistor - 1958-1964

  • Third generation: Integrated circuits – 1965 – 1971

    • Small scale integration - 1965 on

      • Up to 100 devices on a chip

    • Medium scale integration - to 1971

      • 100-3,000 devices on a chip

    • Semiconductor memory (1970)

    • Microprocessor (1971)


Generations of computer1

Generations of Computer

  • Fourth generation: Large scale integration (LSI) - 1971-1977

    • 3,000 - 100,000 devices on a chip

    • Intel 8080: first general-purpose microprocessor (1974)

  • Fifth generation: 1978 – present

    • Very large scale integration (VLSI) - 1978 to date

      • 100,000 - 100,000,000 devices on a chip

    • Ultra large scale integration (ULSI)

      • Over 100,000,000 devices on a chip

    • GSI ??


Moore s law

Moore’s Law

  • Increased density of components on chip

  • Number of transistors on a chip will double every year

  • Since 1970’s development has slowed a little

    • Number of transistors doubles every 18 months

  • Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged

  • Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance

  • Smaller size gives

    increased flexibility

  • Reduced power and

    cooling requirements

  • Fewer interconnections

    increases reliability


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