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Supplementary Topics. Computer Architecture Computer Organization Organization and Architecture History of Computers Generations of Computers Moore’s Law. Computer Architecture (1). Definition? “The design of integrated system which provides a useful tool to the programmer.” (Baer)

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supplementary topics
Supplementary Topics
  • Computer Architecture
  • Computer Organization
  • Organization and Architecture
  • History of Computers
  • Generations of Computers
  • Moore’s Law
computer architecture 1
Computer Architecture (1)
  • Definition?
  • “The design of integrated system which provides a useful tool to the programmer.” (Baer)
  • “The study of the structure, behaviour, and design of computers.” (Hayes)
  • “The design of the system specification at a general or subsystem level.” (Abd-Alla)
  • “The art of designing a machine that will be a pleasure to work with.” (Foster)
computer architecture 2
Computer Architecture (2)
  • “The interface between the hardware and the lowest level software.” (Hennessy and Patterson)
  • Keyword:
    • Design
    • System
    • Structure
    • Art Tool Interface
computer architecture 3
Computer Architecture (3)
  • Therefore, computer architecture refers to
    • Attributes of a system visible to programmers
    • Attributes that have a direct impact on the execution of programs
  • Attributes
    • Instruction set
    • Data representation
    • I/O mechanisms
    • Addressing techniques
computer organization
Computer Organization
  • Organization refers to operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications.
  • Attributes: hardware details transparent to programmers
    • Control signals
    • Computer/peripheral interface
    • Memory technology
architecture organization 1
Architecture & Organization (1)
  • Architecture is attributes visible to programmers
  • Organization is how features areimplemented
  • Example:
    • Architecture: multiply instruction?
    • Organization: hardware multiply unit or done by repeated addition? (how is it implemented?)
  • Example:
    • IBM/370 architecture
    • different models (organizations)
architecture organization 2
Architecture & Organization (2)
  • Family Concept
    • All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture
    • The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture
    • This gives code compatibility (at least backwards)
  • Organization differs between different versions
history of computers 1
History of Computers (1)
  • Pre-mechanical Era
    • Abacus (ancient China)
  • Mechanical Era (1623 – 1940s)
    • Wilhelm Schickhard (1623)
      • Automatically +, -, x, 
    • Blaise Pascal (1642)
      • Mass produced first working machine (50)
      • Only +, -
    • Gottfried Liebniz (1673)
      • Improved on Pascal’s machine (+, -, x, )
history of computers 2
History of Computers (2)
  • Mechanical Era (cont’d)
    • Charles Babbage (1822)
      • Father of modern computer
      • Automatic computation of math tables
      • Any math operation
      • Punch cards
      • Modern structure: I/O, storage, ALU
      • +: 1 sec. x: 1 min.
    • George Boole (1847)
      • Mathmatical analysis of logic
history of computers 3
History of Computers (3)
  • Mechanical Era (cont’d)
    • Herman Hollerith (1889)
      • Modern day punch card machine
      • Tabulating machine company  predecessor of
    • Konard Zuse (1938)
      • First working mechanical computer, Z1 (later on Z2 – Z4)
      • First programmable computer
      • Binary floating point machine
    • Howard Aiken (1943)
      • Harvard Mark I, built by IBM
      • Implementation of Babbage’s machine

IBM

history of computers 4
History of Computers (4)
  • Summary of Mechanical Era
    • Contributions
      • Reduce calculation time
      • Increase accuracy
    • Drawback
      • Speed: limited by moving parts
      • Cumbersome
      • Expensive
      • Unreliable
  • Entered the Electronic Era (1945 – present)!!
von neumann turing
von Neumann/Turing
  • Stored Program concept
  • Main memory storing programs and data
  • ALU operating on binary data
  • Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing
  • Input and output equipment operated by control unit
  • Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies
    • IAS
  • Completed 1952: Basis for virtually every machine designed since then
generations of computer
Generations of Computer
  • First generation: Vacuum tube - 1946-1957
  • Second generation: Transistor - 1958-1964
  • Third generation: Integrated circuits – 1965 – 1971
    • Small scale integration - 1965 on
      • Up to 100 devices on a chip
    • Medium scale integration - to 1971
      • 100-3,000 devices on a chip
    • Semiconductor memory (1970)
    • Microprocessor (1971)
generations of computer1
Generations of Computer
  • Fourth generation: Large scale integration (LSI) - 1971-1977
    • 3,000 - 100,000 devices on a chip
    • Intel 8080: first general-purpose microprocessor (1974)
  • Fifth generation: 1978 – present
    • Very large scale integration (VLSI) - 1978 to date
      • 100,000 - 100,000,000 devices on a chip
    • Ultra large scale integration (ULSI)
      • Over 100,000,000 devices on a chip
    • GSI ??
moore s law
Moore’s Law
  • Increased density of components on chip
  • Number of transistors on a chip will double every year
  • Since 1970’s development has slowed a little
    • Number of transistors doubles every 18 months
  • Cost of a chip has remained almost unchanged
  • Higher packing density means shorter electrical paths, giving higher performance
  • Smaller size gives

increased flexibility

  • Reduced power and

cooling requirements

  • Fewer interconnections

increases reliability

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