Equilibrium
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 11

Equilibrium PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 75 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Equilibrium. I WISH I HAD SWEAT GLANDS. LeChatelier’s Principle. CO 2 + CaO CaCO 3. “chicken breath”. “food”. “egg shell”. As temperature increases , chickens “pant” more. This stresses the system and shifts the equilibrium to the. LEFT.

Download Presentation

Equilibrium

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Equilibrium

Equilibrium

I WISH I HAD

SWEAT GLANDS.

  • LeChatelier’s Principle

CO2 + CaO CaCO3

“chicken

breath”

“food”

“egg shell”

As temperature increases, chickens “pant” more.

This stresses the system and shifts the equilibrium to the

LEFT

This makes the egg shells THIN and fragile.


Equilibrium

I wish I had

sweat glands.

In summer, [ CO2 ] in a chicken’s blood due to panting.

In a chicken…CaO + CO2 CaCO3

(eggshells)

-- shift ; eggshells are thinner

How could we increase eggshell thickness in summer?

[ CO2 ] , shift

-- give chickens carbonated water

[ CaO ] , shift

-- put CaO additives in chicken feed

TOO much $$$

-- air condition the chicken house

-- pump CO2 gas into the chicken house

would kill all the chickens!


Lechatelier s principle

…favors the endothermic reaction (the reverse

reaction) in which the rise in temperature is

counteracted by the absorption of heat.

Raising the temperature…

…favors the forward reaction in which 4 mol

of gas molecules is converted to 2 mol.

Increasing the pressure…

Decreasing the concentration

of NH3…

…favors the forward reaction in order to

replace the NH3 that has been removed.

LeChatelier’s Principle

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3 + heat

Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter 3rd Edition, page 532


Equilibrium expression

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3 + heat

Equilibrium Expression

Haber Process

Dorin, Demmin, Gabel, Chemistry The Study of Matter 3rd Edition, page 532


Equilibrium

  • Animations

  • •Equilibrium Constant

  • •Calculating Keq

  • •Numerical Value of Keq


Equilibrium

Reactant Product

H2SO4 2 H1+ + SO42–

Rate at which

R P

Rate at which

P R

=

reversible reaction:

Reactant Product and P R

Acid dissociation is a reversible reaction.

equilibrium:

looks like nothing is happening, however…

system is dynamic, NOT static


Le chatelier s principle

N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g)

Le Chatelier’s principle

Le Chatelier’s principle:

When a system at equilibrium is disturbed, it shifts to a

new equilibrium that counteracts the disturbance.

DisturbanceEquilibrium Shift

Add more N2…………………..

“ “ H2…………………..

“ “ NH3…………………

Remove NH3…………………..

Add a catalyst…………………

no shift

Increase pressure…………….


Light darkening eyeglasses

AgCl + energy Ago + Clo

“energy”

“energy”

Light-Darkening Eyeglasses

(clear)(dark)

Go outside…

Sunlight more intense than inside light;

shift to a new equilibrium:

GLASSES DARKEN

Then go inside…

shift to a new equilibrium:

GLASSES LIGHTEN


Maintaining blood ph

Maintaining Blood pH

Carbon dioxide is exhaled

Acid entering the blood stream

HCO31- + H+ H2CO3 H2O + CO2

Bicarbonate ion circulates in the blood stream where it is in equilibrium with H+ and OH-.

In the lungs, bicarbonate ions combine with a hydrogen ion and lose a water molecule

to form carbon dioxide, which is exhaled.

Kelter, Carr, Scott, Chemistry A World of Choices 1999, page 291


Alkalosis

Alkalosis

If our breathing becomes too fast (hyperventilation)…

Carbon dioxide is removed from the blood too quickly.

This accelerates the rate of degradation of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water.

The lower level of carbonic acid encourages the combination of hydrogen ions and

bicarbonate ions to make more carbonic acid. The final result is a fall in blood H1+

levels that raises blood pH which can result in over-excitability or death.

Kelter, Carr, Scott, Chemistry A World of Choices 1999, page 291


Acidosis

Acidosis

If breathing becomes too slow (hypoventilation)…

…free up acid, pH of blood drops, with associated health risks such as depression

of the central nervous system or death.

The normal pH of blood is between 7.2 – 7.4.

This pH is maintained by the bicarbonate ion and other buffers.

Kelter, Carr, Scott, Chemistry A World of Choices 1999, page 291


  • Login