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Consider the dome of the sky over our heads…. mixing bowl. Consider the dome of the sky over our heads…. inverted mixing bowl …. Celestial Sphere: Extension of the Earth ’ s Coordinates. celestial sphere N/S celestial poles celestial equator. Like a salad bowl over your head!.

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Celestial Sphere: Extension of the Earth’s Coordinates

  • celestial sphere

  • N/S celestial poles

  • celestial equator

Like a salad bowl over

your head!


The zodiac throughout the year
The Zodiac throughout the Year

Example: In Winter sun in Sagittarius, Gemini at night sky;in summer sun in Gemini, Sagittarius at night sky


Zodiacal signs vs constellations
Zodiacal signs vs. Constellations

  • “Constellation” is a modern, well-defined term

    • - Some constellations are big, some are small on the celestial sphere

  • “Zodiacal sign” is the old way of dividing the year and the Sun’s path into 12 equal parts

  • zodiacal sign is exactly 30 degrees “long”


The ecliptic
The Ecliptic

  • The sun appears to move along a plane in the sky referred to as the ecliptic.

  • The other planets also appear to move close to the ecliptic.


Sun

Gemini

Taurus

Leo

Cancer

Aries

 East

West 

South

If you could see stars during the day, the drawing below shows what the sky would look like at noon on a given day. The Sun is near the stars of the constellation Gemini. Near which constellation would you have expect the Sun to be located at sunrise on this day?

  • Leo

  • Cancer

  • Gemini

  • Taurus

  • Aries

0/0


At what time will star b be located high in the northwestern sky

Celestial Sphere Rotation

Path of Star B

Celestial Sphere

Path of Star A

4

North Star

2

3

North Star

Earth’s Equator

Horizon

6 PM

Celestial Sphere Rotation

North

At what time will Star B be located high in the Northwestern sky?

  • 4:00 am

  • 10:00 am

  • 2:00 pm

  • 7:00 pm

  • 1:00 am


Celestial Sphere Rotation

Path of Star B

Celestial Sphere

1

Path of Star A

4

North Star

2

3

North Star

Earth’s Equator

Horizon

6 PM

Sphere Rotation

North

If you were able to see the motion of star B be at Noon, over a period of 15 minutes what direction would it appear to move?

  • west (to the left)

  • east (to the right)

  • South (out of the page)

  • away from the horizon (up)

  • toward the horizon (down)


Hipparchus
Hipparchus

  • Lived about 150 BC

    • 850 Star Positions

    • Defined Magnitudes

    • Discovered Precession

Cataloger of the Heavens



Precession causes the north celestial pole to drift among the stars, completing a circle in 26,000 years.


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