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Consider the dome of the sky over our heads…. mixing bowl. Consider the dome of the sky over our heads…. inverted mixing bowl …. Celestial Sphere: Extension of the Earth ’ s Coordinates. celestial sphere N/S celestial poles celestial equator. Like a salad bowl over your head!.

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slide10

Celestial Sphere: Extension of the Earth’s Coordinates

  • celestial sphere
  • N/S celestial poles
  • celestial equator

Like a salad bowl over

your head!

the zodiac throughout the year
The Zodiac throughout the Year

Example: In Winter sun in Sagittarius, Gemini at night sky;in summer sun in Gemini, Sagittarius at night sky

zodiacal signs vs constellations
Zodiacal signs vs. Constellations
  • “Constellation” is a modern, well-defined term
    • - Some constellations are big, some are small on the celestial sphere
  • “Zodiacal sign” is the old way of dividing the year and the Sun’s path into 12 equal parts
  • zodiacal sign is exactly 30 degrees “long”
the ecliptic
The Ecliptic
  • The sun appears to move along a plane in the sky referred to as the ecliptic.
  • The other planets also appear to move close to the ecliptic.
slide15

Sun

Gemini

Taurus

Leo

Cancer

Aries

 East

West 

South

If you could see stars during the day, the drawing below shows what the sky would look like at noon on a given day. The Sun is near the stars of the constellation Gemini. Near which constellation would you have expect the Sun to be located at sunrise on this day?

  • Leo
  • Cancer
  • Gemini
  • Taurus
  • Aries

0/0

at what time will star b be located high in the northwestern sky

Celestial Sphere Rotation

Path of Star B

Celestial Sphere

Path of Star A

4

North Star

2

3

North Star

Earth’s Equator

Horizon

6 PM

Celestial Sphere Rotation

North

At what time will Star B be located high in the Northwestern sky?
  • 4:00 am
  • 10:00 am
  • 2:00 pm
  • 7:00 pm
  • 1:00 am
slide17

Celestial Sphere Rotation

Path of Star B

Celestial Sphere

1

Path of Star A

4

North Star

2

3

North Star

Earth’s Equator

Horizon

6 PM

Sphere Rotation

North

If you were able to see the motion of star B be at Noon, over a period of 15 minutes what direction would it appear to move?
  • west (to the left)
  • east (to the right)
  • South (out of the page)
  • away from the horizon (up)
  • toward the horizon (down)
hipparchus
Hipparchus
  • Lived about 150 BC
    • 850 Star Positions
    • Defined Magnitudes
    • Discovered Precession

Cataloger of the Heavens

slide20

Precession causes the north celestial pole to drift among the stars, completing a circle in 26,000 years.

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