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Evolving inversion methods in Geophysics with Cloud Computing – a case study of an eScience collaboration Mudge, Chandrasekhar, Heinson , Thiel. Prof J Craig Mudge FTSE University of Adelaide Australia School of Computer Science/ School of Earth Sceinces

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Evolving inversion methods in Geophysics with Cloud Computing – a case study of an eScience collaboration Mudge, Chandrasekhar, Heinson, Thiel

Prof J Craig Mudge FTSE

University of Adelaide

Australia

School of Computer Science/ School of Earth Sceinces

7th IEEE eScience Conference, Stockholm, December 2011


Two south australian successes in geology
Two South Australian successes in geology Computing – a case study of an eScience collaboration

  • Hot rocks for geo-thermal energy - 95% investment is in South Australia

  • Olympic Dam  - BHP Billiton

    -- world's fourth largest copper deposit, fifth largest gold deposit and the largest uranium deposit.

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Outline
Outline Computing – a case study of an eScience collaboration

Cloud computing

Collaborative Cloud Computing Lab (C3L)

Inversion in magnetotelluric processing

Geothermal – EGS in South Australia

Results and Lessons learned

Future work


Cloud service provider Computing – a case study of an eScience collaboration owns and operates the infrastructure and innovates to keep technology leading edge, handle software upgrades, and steadily reduce energy costs

Google, Dalles Oregon Microsoft Azure, Chicago


Massive scale of data centres delivers 4 7x cost reduction and energy efficiency
Massive scale of data centres delivers 4 – 7X cost reduction and energy efficiency

Air flow


A no machines lab
A no-machines Lab reduction and energy efficiency

eScience enabled by

cloud computing

machines

Seed funding from

-- Department of Mines www.pir.sa.gov.au

-- MSFT Research Jim Gray Seed Grant

Started June 2010

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Our three cloud service providers
Our three cloud service providers reduction and energy efficiency

Amazon Web Services

Microsoft Azure

Now adding government funded eResearch clouds which will run Open Stack (NASA and Rackspace)

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Magnetotelluric mt imaging
Magnetotelluric reduction and energy efficiency (MT) imaging

(Heinson and Mudge, 2010)

CO2 in depleted gas field

  • Using the magnetic and electric fields of the earth, MT imaging determines the resistivity structure of a sub-surface area of interest.

  • It goes deeper (hundred or so Km) than seismic (<2 Km) but does not have the same resolution

  • Applications

    • mineral exploration,

    • water management in mining,

    • geothermal exploration,

    • carbon storage,

    • aquifer research and management

    • earthquake and volcano studies.


Electrical resistivity
Electrical resistivity reduction and energy efficiency


Electromagnetic methods
Electromagnetic methods reduction and energy efficiency


Data logging by university of adelaide geophysics on a geothermal site paralana sa australia
Data logging by University of Adelaide Geophysics, on a geothermal site – Paralana, SA, Australia


Mt processing steps
MT Processing steps geothermal site –

Inversion

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s geothermal site – tart

Searching the solution space

compute sensitivity

matrix

compute model’s

MT response

Inversion iterations:

Compute model response,

compare with observed data

locally improve

model misfit

compare model responseto observed data

yes

requiredmisfit?

no

no

can locally improve misfit?

> max iterations?

yes

can locally improve smoothness?

yes

locally improve

model smoothness

smoothenough?

no

yes

no

no

yes

finish

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Setting up a new inversion part 1
Setting up a new inversion – part 1 2011

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Setting up a new inversion part 2
Setting up a new inversion – part 2 2011

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Dashboard
Dashboard 2011

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Results and lessons learned

Results and Lessons learned 2011

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Speedup
Speedup 2011

Sequential

Parallel

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Performance analysis beyond speedup
Performance analysis beyond speedup 2011

Sequential

Parallel

Examples of recent performance analysis

Effect of FORTRAN compiler with different optimisations has been worth exploring. A factor of

3X speed up from the Intel Visual Fortran Composer XE 2011 for Windows.

2. “Steal time” - time lost due to hypervisor’s management of a virtual machine – Netflix have

analysed their Amazon experience extensively

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Results and learnings
Results and 2011learnings

“No-machines” works

Speedup has led to 100% adoption in MT research

First results of monitoring fluid injection in EGS Reservoirs using magnetotellurics (MT) – promising since seismic does not indicate fluid flow, and MT is low cost

Taking chunks of FORTRAN is achievable in a timely manner

Capability building – a true eScience partnership

Our Web Services user interactions took same amount of programming effort as parallelising

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eScience in the cloud 2011- observations of a veteran of the computer industry (but not my co-authors in this eScience paper)

Web Services (giving interoperability between disparate services of historic proportion) could have been adopted faster in eScience

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(Mudge, 2002) 2011

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(Mudge, 2002) 2011

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eScience in the cloud 2011- observations of a veteran of the computer industry (but not my co-authors in this eScience paper)

Web Services (giving interoperability between disparate services of historic proportion) could have been adopted faster in eScience

Cloud computing will speed up the use of web services , because cloud makes it natural to interact using web services (service orientation, discovery, interoperability)

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Lessons learned hpc programming
Lessons learned – HPC programming 2011

MapReduce (Hadoop) is the programming model that best matches data centre as the computer. However, because it requires rewrite of existing programs, the first wave of benefits come from simpler parallelism – parameter sweeps, Monte Carlo simulation, job-level parallelism, etc.

Second wave of benefits will be new algorithms and rewrites using MapReduce

Nevertheless, the first wave in cloud-based bioinformatics (matching short reads against reference genome) did use MapReduce

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Lessons learned azure
Lessons learned - Azure 2011

  • Why was Azure much harder to migrate to than predicted?

    Answer:

    - We came from a non .Net environment

    - Azure younger than Amazon (2 years)

    • Virtual Machine in Beta

    • Deployment times 20 minutes vs 20 seconds slows debugging

  • Azure designed for long running applications, e.g., ecommerce, more than for scientific

    2. However, we persist.

    - Warehouse-sized data centre – operating system is robust and rich, e.g., hot swap of patches

    - Benefits of PaaS

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Future work

Future work 2011

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Future work 1 of 2
Future work 1 of 2 2011

  • Inversion on demand, available to colleagues and explorers world-wide, wrapped in workflow (persistence, provenance, partial runs, ...)

  • National/international collaboration building on a national Geophysics Virtual Lab

    - access to disparate data (seismic, borehole images, gravity, magnetic, ...) built by Auscope using results of GeoSciML Interoperability Working Group

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Societal Need 2011

Sustainable Energy Policy

Environment

Virtual Laboratory

Energy Exploration Integrated Virtual Laboratory

Integrated Virtual Labs

Virtual Laboratories

Virtual Geophysical Laboratory

National Borehole Laboratory

Virtual Geodesy Laboratory

Virtual Earth Observation

Laboratory

Virtual Oceans Laboratory

Modelling & analytic tools

Processing Services

Processing Services

Processing Services

Processing Services

Processing Services

Middleware

Middleware

Middleware

Middleware

Middleware

Virtual Libraries

Data

Data

Data

Data

Data

Land cover

Marine

Geophysics

Borehole

Geodesy

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Dr Robert Woodcock and Dr Lesley Wyborn


Future work 2 of 2
Future work 2 of 2 2011

Explore statistical machine learning to detect interesting patterns

Exploring solution space using Evolutionary Algorithms implemented on thousands of processors in the cloud (Brad Alexander)

Promulgate security best practices

Following the success of speedup, model size has become the limiter for our geophysicists

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Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements 2011

Brad Alexander

Gordon Bell

Pinaki Chandrasekhar

Dennis Gannon

Graham Heinson

Tony Hey

Ed Lazowska

Stephan Thiel

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Summary
Summary 2011

Cloud computing

Collaborative Cloud Computing Lab (C3L)

Inversion in magnetotelluric processing

Geothermal – EGS in South Australia

Lessons learned

Future work


Thanks 2011and questions [email protected]+61 417 679 266+1 650 224 2111

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Security best practices
Security best practices 2011

Certifications

Physical security

Secure services

Data privacy via encryption

Backups

Constant monitoring

External review

Compare yours with Google, Amazon, Azure

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