Plant - Insect Interactions
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Plant - Insect Interactions Seeing The Universe From An Insect’s Perspective T’ai Roulston. The problems faced by animals that eat plant products. Get Food Find Mates Avoid Being Eaten. The problems faced by plants. Get Pollinated Disperse Seeds Avoid Being Eaten.

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Plant - Insect Interactions Seeing The Universe From An Insect’s Perspective

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Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

  • Plant - Insect Interactions

    • Seeing The Universe

    • From An Insect’s Perspective

    • T’ai Roulston


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

The problems faced by animals that eat plant products

Get Food

Find Mates

Avoid Being Eaten


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

The problems faced by plants

Get Pollinated

Disperse Seeds

Avoid Being Eaten


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

How Insects Affect Plants

Pollination

Positive

Insect

Plant

Negative

Herbivory


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

How Insects Affect Plants

Seed dispersal

Photo:Benoit Guenard

Positive

Insect

Plant

Negative

Frugivory - seed

destruction


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

How Insects Affect Plants

Predation/

Parasitism

Positive

Insect

Plant

Negative


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

How Insects Affect Plants

jeffcogardener.blogspot.com

Positive

Insect

Plant

Negative

Anti-predator

defense

Photo: Marin Rice

cirrusimage.com


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

How Insects Affect Plants

Positive

Insect

Plant

Negative

Spread disease

Photo: Jude Boucher

Cucurbit Yellow Vine Disease

squash bugs


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Net Effect = Sum of Interactions

Insect 1

Insect 3

Plant Performance

Insect 4

Insect 2

Implications for both agriculture and ecosystems


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Physalis longifolia study system

Mary McCauley, Berea College (2004); Maggie Triska, Viterbo University (2005);

Jacob Elstein, Virginia Tech (2005); Cedric Jones, Howard University (2006);

Brandon Lingbeek, Calvin College (2007); Linnea Meier, Earlham College (2008);

Alysia Soper, Luther College (2008); Ricky Rivera, UPR-Bayamon (2009); Stephanie

Cruz-Maysonet, UPR-Bayamon (2010)


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Generalists

Specialist

Stored

Energy

Flower

Production

Fruit

Maturation

Fruit Induction

Seed Production


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Why might specialists be important?

Generalist foraging strategy when

several acceptable hosts

Specialist foraging strategy or generalist strategy

if the generalist acts as a temporary specialist


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Tracking Pollinators


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

  • Recapture and movement of specialist and generalist pollinators of Physalis during 2004 and 2005


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Plot Visits per Survey Hour for Each Species

7

July 7-14, 2004

6

July 15-22, 2004

July 23-30, 2004

5

4

Visits per Survey Hour

3

2

1

0

Colletes

Lasiogl.

Augochl.

Epeolus

Bombus


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Number of flowers visited per plot visit per species

6

5

4

Flowers visited per plot visit

3

2

1

0

Lasiogl.

Colletes

Augochl

Epeolus

Species


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Fruit Initiation From Single Visits

1.0

p < 0.05

0.8

0.6

Proportion Fruits Initiated from Single Visits

0.4

0.2

0.0

Colletes

Lasioglossum

Augochlorinae


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Pollinator Conclusions

The specialist prevails in

abundance

flowers visited

pollination efficiency

pollen dispersal


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Pollinators

Pollen Deposition

Stored

Energy

Flower

Production

Fruit

Maturation

Fruit Induction

Seed Production


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Initially Interested in Pollination


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

What Governs Presence of Herbivore?

Susceptible Genotypes? Induced defenses?

Predation?


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Survival to Mature Larva of 10 Lema

Placed on 10 Caged and 10 Uncaged Plants

NOTE TO SELF --THESE

PICTURES DO NOT DISPLAY

REU student Brandon Lingbeek


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

One cause of mortality to Lema eggs

Q1: Early season decline not explained by late season predators or parasites.

Nocturnal predators? Plant is saved by whatever is controlling

early herbivores.


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Predation

Interaction web for

Physalis longifolia

Parasitism

Pollen Deposition

Stored

Energy

Flower

Production

Fruit

Maturation

Fruit Induction

Seed Production

Frugivory

Foliar Herbivory

Predation

Parasitism


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Development of Symmetrischema sp.


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Predation

Interaction web for

Physalis longifolia

Parasitism

Pollen Deposition

Florivory

Stored

Energy

Flower

Production

Fruit

Maturation

Fruit Induction

Seed Production

Frugivory

Foliar Herbivory

Predation

Parasitism


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Part 2. How Do Plants Affect Insects?


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Bee Diversity and Plant Utilization Patterns

20,000 spp worldwide 140 (so far) at Blandy

Center of Diversity: arid areas –southwestern USA, Mediterranean

Diet: pollen and nectar


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Development of the sweat bee Lasioglossum zephyrum


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Variation in Pollen Chemistry

Constituent MaxMin

% Starch 23.70

Calories/g 67504407

% Protein 602.5

Amino acid variation: ??

Toxicity??


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Ongoing Research: Understand the plant traits that influence

insect foraging decisions, and the results of those foraging

decisions on insect development


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

What Is Known About Pollen - Bee Interactions?

Extremely important

Pollen varies in many ways

Bees make flower choices based on

accessibility

nectar reward

floral color

floral odor

Q2: Do bees recognize quality and adjust choice?

What are the characteristics of quality?

What plants (either natives or invasives) may best support

wild pollinator populations?


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Specific Possible Avenues for Inquiry

Herbivory on wild tomatillo:

What early season factors protect the plant

from an enemy that could destroy all of it?

Foraging Cues:

What pollen traits influence larval development and body size

in bees? Do bees recognize them?


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

The End


Plant insect interactions seeing the universe from an insect s perspective

Research Areas

Why pollinators choose the plants they do

Nutritional quality of pollen

The implications of foraging choices of pollinators

on success of their host plants

Why herbivores choose their host plants

What governs herbivore populations

Potential Applications

Understanding how to promote wild pollinators in agriculture

Understanding ecosystem level processes to control pests


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