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CHE5480 Summer 2005. Nanostructures: Introduction. TOPICS:. Theory: (Dr. Lee) Experiments (Dr. Newman) Computer: (Dr. Neeman) Attending Nanotechnology Meeting. What size is a nanometer?. A nanometer (nm) is 10 -10 meter (1 m = 3.28 ft). Nanotech: from1 nm to ~100 nm Albumin 6.5 nm

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Che5480 summer 2005 l.jpg

CHE5480 Summer 2005

Nanostructures: Introduction


Topics l.jpg
TOPICS:

  • Theory: (Dr. Lee)

  • Experiments (Dr. Newman)

  • Computer: (Dr. Neeman)

  • Attending Nanotechnology Meeting


What size is a nanometer l.jpg
What size is a nanometer?

  • A nanometer (nm) is 10-10 meter (1 m = 3.28 ft).

Nanotech: from1 nm to ~100 nm

Albumin 6.5 nm

Ribosome 25 nm

Argon 0.3 nm

CH4 0.4 nm

H2O 0.3 nm

Red Blood Cell 2000x7000 nm


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What size is a nanometer? (2)

HIV virus 125 nm

Red Blood Cell 2000x7000 nm

Argon 0.3 nm

CH4 0.4 nm

H2O 0.3 nm

~1 nm ~100 nm

Albumin 6.5 nm

Ribosome 25 nm


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From NNI (National Nanotechnology Initiative) The Initiative and its Implementation Plan :

The essence of nanotechnology is the ability to work at the molecular level, atom by atom, to create large structures with fundamentally new molecular organization. Compared to the behavior of isolated molecules of about 1 nm (10 -9 m) or of bulk materials, behavior of structural features in the range of about 10 -9 to 10 -7 m (1 to 100 nm - a typical dimension of 10 nm is 1,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair) exhibit important changes. Nanotechnology is concerned with materials and systems whose structures and components exhibit novel and significantly improved physical, chemical, and biological properties, phenomena, and processes due to their nanoscale size.

Definition of Nanotechnology:


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22 National Agencies in NNI:(11 of which have R&D budgets.)


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National technology for the 21st century: Leading to a new industrial revolution

  • Initiatives (NTR):

  • Research on fundamental understanding and discoveries.

  • Design of nanostructured materials.

  • Nanodevices: information, bio, medical.

  • Applications of nanomaterials and devices to energy, health, evironment, and security.

  • Education of a new generation of skilled workers.


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History of NNI: (National Nanotechnology Initiative)

  • 1998: IWGN (Interagency Working Group on Nanotechnology)—National technology for the 21st century: Leading to a new industrial revolution.

  • 2001: NNI (Nantional Nanotechnology Initiative)—Funding at ~500 million.

  • 2001 NSET (National Science, Engineering, and Technology)



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Nanostructured Materials:

  • Carbon nanotubes

  • Aerogels

  • Zeolites

  • Dendrimers

  • Self-assembled monolayers

  • Nanoparticles

  • Nanowires

  • NEMS, etc.



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Applications of nanotechnology:

  • A new industrial revolution (on the scale of the transistors in 1950s).

  • Potentially it will pervade all sectors of industry and technology.

  • Essentially in the following areas:

    Information, health, space, environment, defense, etc.



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Mimicry of Nature—1 The Lotus Effect

Water runs off.

  • Both surface chemistry and surface topology influence the hydrophobicity -slip. The surface contains “waxy bumps”.

  • Using the “Lotus effect” (that lotus leaves are highly hydrophobic), one can achieve slip flow (Tretheway & Meinhart –UCSB, Silane. Phys. Fluids 2002).

Water beads up on papillae.

Papillae on leaves.


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Mimicry of Nature—2(The lotus leaf surface)(Feng 2002)

Papilla

μ


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Mimicry of Nature—3Water Strider

Gao, X. F. & Jiang, L. Water-repellent legs of water striders. Nature432, 36 (2004).

μ



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Nanosensors:

  • Using nanostructued materials for detection of trace amounts of chemical and biological agents. (Medical, space, environmental, homeland security).


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Detection of Pathogens—(Homeland Security):


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Anthrax: (Woolverton, Kent State U.)


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Detect Viruses(Lieber, Harvard)



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Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion(James Baker, U. Michigan)

  • Use of soybean oil emulsified with surfactants. Drops ~400 – 600 nm.

  • The droplet do not coalesce with themselves . High surface tension make them coalesce with other lipid droplets, killing bacteria.

  • Safe for external use. Not safe for red cells, or sperm.


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  • The droplets fuse with cell membrane of microorganisms resulting in cell lysis.

  • Very effective in killing:

    – Bacteria, 

    – Bacterial spores, 

    – Enveloped viruses, and

    – Fungal spores.

  • They are effective at preventing illness in individuals, when used both before and after exposure to the infective agent.

  • They could be used: 

    – Topically, 

    – As an inhalant.


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Antimicrobial Nanoemulsion resulting in cell lysis.

  • Left: treated with nanoemulsion,

  • Right: untreated.

  • The growth of bacteria colonies has been eliminated by treatment with the nanoemulsion.


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Example of Nanostructures resulting in cell lysis.:Starburst Dendrimers


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What is a dendrimer? resulting in cell lysis.Branched polymers(dendron = tree in Greek)Functionality= 3 (Nitrogen)


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Generations of Dendrimers resulting in cell lysis.

Your Text Here


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Generations of Dendrimers resulting in cell lysis.

2nd gen.

5th gen.

4th gen.


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PAMAM Dendrimer resulting in cell lysis.(polyamidoamine)

  • Alternating

    (B)-AB-AB-AB-...

  • Ethylenediamine (B)

  • H2N-C-C-NH2

  • Methylacrylate (A)

  • C=C-CO-OCH3


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PAMAM Moieties: resulting in cell lysis.

Diamine

Acrylate

NH3 or Diamine


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Size of PAMAM Dendrimers resulting in cell lysis.Generation M.W. Angstrom (dia.) End Gps

(1 nm = 10 Angstroms)


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Equivalent Sizes with Cells: resulting in cell lysis.


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Applications of Dendrimers resulting in cell lysis.

  • Gas and chemical sensors

  • Catalysts

  • Drug delivery and gene therapy

  • Surface modifiers (tribology, and information storage)

  • Bio compatible materials

  • Electronic devices and antennae


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Dendrimers as resulting in cell lysis.Drug Delivery Agents:An Example


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James R. Baker Jr. resulting in cell lysis.University of Michigan

Professor, Internal Medicine and Bioengineering

Chief, Division of Allergy

Director, Center for Biologic Nanotechnology

Co-Director, Center for Biomedical Engineering

Biotechnology, Nanotechnology and Immunology


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Drug Delivery resulting in cell lysis.

  • Research in the area of autoimmune endocrine disease. He has helped define the basis of the autoimmune response to thyroid auto antigens.

    Gene Delivery

  • Work concerning gene transfer; developing a new vector system for gene transfer using synthetic polymers (dendrimers).

    Anti-microbial research

  • Work on preventing pathogens from entering the human body. This research project seeks to develop a composite material that will serve as a pathogen avoidance barrier and post-exposure therapeutic agent to be applied in a topical manner to the skin and mucous membranes.


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Receptors and Ligands resulting in cell lysis.


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Dendrimers resulting in cell lysis.

(code named “smart bombs”)

Targeting cancer cells (ignore normal ones)

Able to enter cells

Little toxicity

Focus:

High energy lasers or sound wave to trigger the release of the drug out of the dendrimer.

Drug Delivery by Dendrimers


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Polyfunctional Tecto-dendrimers: resulting in cell lysis.(connected PAMAM units)

  • Each “spore” in this “smart bomb” has its function:

  • Sensing and binding the target (cancer cells).

  • Emitting a signal (imaging).

  • Drug delivery in situ.

  • Dendrimer’s structure tricks the immune system, avoiding response.

  • Low toxicity


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Economist, Dec. 2001 resulting in cell lysis.


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Professor Chris Gorman: resulting in cell lysis.NCSU


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Electron transfer dedndrimers resulting in cell lysis.


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Example of Nanostructures resulting in cell lysis.:Aerogels


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TEM of SiO resulting in cell lysis.2 Aerogels


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Different aerogels: (95% air) resulting in cell lysis.


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Excellent heat insulator: resulting in cell lysis.




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Types of Carbon Nanotubes: resulting in cell lysis.

1.Armchair. 2. Zigzag. 3. Chiral


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A Graphene Sheet resulting in cell lysis.

n=m  Armchair. m=0  Zigzag. others  Chiral.


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Gas absorbed in carbon nanotubes resulting in cell lysis.



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Example of Nanostructures: Zeolites resulting in cell lysis.


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Silicate-Aluminate: resulting in cell lysis.Faujasite


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Inclusion in zeolites resulting in cell lysis.


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Mercury-removal on SAM in Zeolite resulting in cell lysis.


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Nanofluidics: resulting in cell lysis.Flows in channels of nanometer dimension


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Nanofluidics : resulting in cell lysis.Examples of MEMS & NEMS: (Micro- & Nano-electromechanical systems)

Lieber (Harvard)


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(“Laboratory-on-a chip”) resulting in cell lysis.

Lieber (Harvard)

MEMS


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Flow behavior in nanofluidics: resulting in cell lysis.


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Flow behavior in nanofluidics: resulting in cell lysis.(2)

  • LOCOMOTION?

    difficult to make fluid flow in small channels.

  • Driving forces:

  • Pressure

  • Surface-capillary force

  • Electric (electroosmotic, electrophoretic, electrohydrodynamic, electrowetting), and magnetic (magnetohydrodynamic)

  • Sound—acoustic

  • Centrifuge (rotation)


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Making Circuitry by Nanofluidics: resulting in cell lysis.(Lieber, Harvard)

Purpose: using viscous flow in nanochannels.

to orient and assemble nanowires (to make logical circuitries).

Note: at nanoscale, the surface effects are large (due to large surface-to-volume ratio). Thus viscous forces dominate in the flow.


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(1) Make a mold of channels ( resulting in cell lysis.PDMS-polydimethylsiloxane). (2) Disperse nanowires (GaP, InP, Si) in ethanol, the carrier solvent. (3) Flow the suspension through the nanochannels.


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SEM images of aligned nanowires resulting in cell lysis..Charles Lieber (Harvard)--2

SEM: bar = 2 μm

bar = 50 μm


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Nanocircuitries : resulting in cell lysis.Examples of NEMS

Lieber (Harvard)


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hydrophobic surfaces resulting in cell lysis.

OTS

Harvard


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What happens to the flow when the interface is hydrophobic? --Slip

2002 Phys. Fluids

Velocity at wall is 10% of the center (NOT zero, i.e. Slip). This increases the total volumetric flow.










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TOPICS: continued --Slip

  • High-performance computing (Dr. Neeman)

  • Experimental program (Dr. Newman)












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