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Chapter 12: South Asia. Environmental Geography. South Asia Reference. South Asia. South Asia is a land of political tensions Tensions between India and Pakistan Growing population South Asia could soon surpass East Asia in population One of the poorest regions on Earth

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chapter 12 south asia

Chapter 12: South Asia

Environmental Geography

south asia
South Asia
  • South Asia is a land of political tensions
    • Tensions between India and Pakistan
  • Growing population
    • South Asia could soon surpass East Asia in population
  • One of the poorest regions on Earth
  • Not well-connected to the globalized world
    • Slow economic growth and inward orientation
environmental geography diverse landscapes from tropical islands to mountain rim
Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim
  • Environmental Issues in South Asia
      • 1984 explosion at Bhopal fertilizer plant
    • Natural Hazards in Bangladesh
      • Flooding in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river deltas
environmental issues
Environmental Issues
  • Cyclones (hurricanes) – mostly Bangladesh
    • Delta at sea level
    • Clobbered by cyclones
    • 60 since 1900
    • 1991 – “The Big One” –
      • 140,000 dead
      • 150 mph wind

20 ft. wave

Factor in poverty cycle

recent monsoons in india
Recent monsoons in India…
  • Sept. 2011 – 50 people died in monsoon related flooding…
  • September 2005 -
  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4727763.stm
environmental issues1
Environmental issues
  • Forests and Deforestation
    • Historically, Ganges Valley and coastal plains of India deforested for agriculture
    • Deforestation (agricultural, urban, and industrial expansion, RR)
      • Fuel wood shortage (dung)
environmental geography diverse landscapes from tropical islands to mountain rim cont
Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim (cont.)
  • Environmental Issues in South Asia (cont.)
    • Forests and Deforestation (cont.)
      • Chipko movement – started as a women’s protest movement against deforestation and now has spread throughout many Himalayan villages
environmental issues2
Environmental Issues
  • Wildlife: Extinction and Protection
    • Region has managed to maintain a diverse wildlife population
      • Increasing population pressure in wildlife habitats
slide18
The Four Subregions of South Asia
    • 1) Mountains of the North
      • Collision of Indian Subcontinent with Eurasian landmass
        • 200 million years ago
        • Himalayan Range and others
        • Still moving (plate tectonics) – 1 inch a year
        • Earthquake zone
himalayas
Himalayas
  • India, Nepal and Bhutan
  • 1500 miles long
  • “Home of the Gods”
  • 24 peaks over 25,000 ft.
  • Mt.Everest (29,028 ft.)
slide23
The Four Subregions of South Asia (cont.)
    • 2) Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands
      • Large lowlands created by three major river systems
        • Indus – longest , 1800 miles- cultural hearth
        • Brahmaputra -1700 miles, delta mostly densely populated in world, fertile land,
        • Ganges – 1500 miles, transportation system, densely populated,
        • Holy river for Hindus
slide25
3) Peninsular India
    • Deccan Plateau
      • Makes up most of peninsular India
    • Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats (6,000 ft, to 8,000 ft. high)
  • 4) The Southern Islands
    • Sri Lanka
    • Maldives – chain of more than 1,200 islands,
      • 75% uninhabited
      • Only 116 square miles total
      • 6 ft. highest elevation
      • Threatened by global warming
slide27
South Asia’s Monsoon Climates
      • Monsoon – the distinct seasonal change of wind direction, which corresponds with wet and dry periods
        • Three South Asian seasons:
          • Warm and rainy season from June to October
          • Cool and dry season November to February
          • Hot period from March to late May (120° F)
      • Drier conditions in Pakistan
      • Crops depend on Monsoon rains
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