The effects of display type on operator decisions and confidence
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The Effects of Display Type on Operator Decisions and Confidence. Mike Oliver 16.422. Summary. Introduction Motivation for research Research method Experimental results Conclusions and questions. Introduction. How does the display of information affect Decisions Confidence

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The effects of display type on operator decisions and confidence

The Effects of Display Type on Operator Decisions and Confidence

  • Mike Oliver

    • 16.422


Summary

Summary

  • Introduction

  • Motivation for research

  • Research method

  • Experimental results

  • Conclusions and questions


Introduction

Introduction

  • How does the display of information affect

    • Decisions

    • Confidence

  • Military context

    • Radar displays

    • Command and control centers


Motivation for research

Motivation for Research

  • System Complexity

  • F/A-18 Contact ID

    • Often wrong

    • No display of sensor confidence

  • Combat Information Center (CIC)

    • Scattered input sources


F a f a 18e f cockpit

F/A F/A-18E/F Cockpit

See image at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/images/fa-18-ef-cockpit.jpg.


Combat information center

Combat Information Center

(Gaston, 2003)

031125-N-0119G-002 Arabian Gulf (Nov. 25, 2003) --Operations Specialist 1st Class Derrick L. Johnston from Meadville, Pa., (left) tracks interceptions of aircraft and reports them to the Tactical Actions Officer (TAO), Lt. Cmdr. Michael J. Yager from Troy, N.Y., (right) in the Combat Direction Center (CDC). CDC is the nerve center of the nuclear powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise (CVN 65). This is where information is collected, processed, displayed, evaluated, and disseminated from sources outside and inside the ship. U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate Rob Gaston. (RELEASED)

(Pendergrass, 2003)

030305-N-3235P-522 At sea aboard USS San Jacinto (CG 56) Mar. 5, 2003 --Fire Controlman Joshua L. Tillman along with three other Fire Controlmen, man the ship’s launch control watch station in the Combat Information Center (CIC) aboard the guided missile cruiser during a Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) training exercise. San Jacinto is deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 1st Class Michael W. Pendergrass. (RELEASED)


What information is important

What Information is Important?

  • What is the contact?

    • Friendly

    • Hostile

  • How likely is that correct?

    • Confidence


Single display

Single Display

  • Include all sources of information

  • Display each source’s confidence

    • Hostile confidence

    • Friendly confidence

    • Combine display


Semi structured model

Semi--Structured Model

Main Display

Sensor 1

Sensor 2

Sensor

Operator 1

Sensor

Operator 2

Commander

Human 1

Warfare

Officer

Intel Officer

Human 2

(Hansman, 2000?)


Semi structured model1

Semi--Structured Model

Main Display

Sensor 1

Sensor 2

Commander

Human 1

Confidence Display

Human 2

(Hansman, 2000?)


Concept of research

Concept of Research

  • Improve decision accuracy

    • Information restriction (Tabatabaei, 2002)

      • Steer operator towards a preferred decision

  • Change decision maker confidence

    • Improve

    • Reduce


Research method

Research Method

  • Create conceptual display

    • 2 human inputs

    • 2 sensor inputs

  • Devise different scenarios

    • Vary confidence

      • Friendly

      • Hostile

      • Ambiguous


Research method cont d

Research Method (cont’d)

  • 45 different scenarios

  • 22 subjects

    • 14 officers

    • 5 ROTC Midshipmen

    • 3 civilians

  • Classify contact

  • Provide confidence level


Research matrix

Research Matrix


Sample displays

Sample Displays

Hostile Combine Friendly

Human #1

Human #1

Human #1

Human #2

Human #2

Human #2

Sensor #1

Sensor #1

Sensor #1

Sensor #2

Sensor #2

Sensor #2


Questionnaire

Questionnaire

  • Which display setup did you prefer when making your decision? Why?

  • What additional information did you feel would have been beneficial if included in the display?

  • Did you tend to favor the human or sensor inputs?


Operator decisions

Operator Decisions

Hostile

Uncertain

Friendly

Contact classification

Hostile

Combine

Friendly

Friendly Ambiguous Hostile

Secnario Type


Operator decisions1

Operator Decisions

Hostile

Uncertain

Friendly

Contact classification

Hostile

Combine

Friendly

Linear. (Hostile)

Linear. (Combine

Linear. (Friendly )

Friendly Ambiguous Hostile

Secnario Type


Confidence

Confidence

Confidence Level

Hostile

Combine

Friendly

Friendly Ambiguous Hostile

Secnario Type


Confidence1

Confidence

Confidence Level

Hostile

Combine

Friendly

Poly. (Friendly )

Poly. (Combine)

Poly. (Hostile)

Friendly Ambiguous Hostile

Secnario Type


Analysis

Analysis

  • ANOVA

    • Decision

  • Well below 0.01

    • Confidence

      • 0.035 for display type

      • <0.01 for scenario type


Questionnaire response

Questionnaire Response

  • All but 1 subject preferred combine display

    • All available information

  • Additional information

    • Numeric percentage

    • Timeliness of info

  • Human vs. Sensor

    • Split equally


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Display type matters

    • 30% bias

  • Combine display

    • Accuracy

    • Confidence


The effects of display type on operator decisions and confidence1

The Effects of Display Type on Operator Decisions and Confidence

  • Mike Oliver

    • 16.422


References

References

  • Gaston, R. (2003). US Navy Photo. Navy NewsStand. Retrieved 17 February 2004 from http://www.news.navy.mil/.

  • GlobalSecurity. (2003). Retrieved 03 May 2004 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military.

  • Hansman, R.J., and Kaliardos, W.N. (2000?). Semi-Structured Decision Processes. Retrieved 17 February 2004 from http://stellar.mit.edu/S/course/16/sp04/16.422.

  • Pendergrass, M.W. (2003). Navy NewsStand. Retrieved 17 February 2004 from http://www.news.navy.mil/.

  • Tabatabaei, M. “An Experimental Analysis of Decision Channeling by Restrictive Information Display,”in Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 2002. Retrieved 10MAR2004 from http://libproxy.mit.edu:8084/cqi-bin/fulltext/99017717/PDFSTART.


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