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The Theory of Evolution. Chapter 15. Charles Darwin and Natural Selection. 1) The theory of evolution is the fundamental concept in biology…… Evolution describes the theory of change in populations over time, not individual species. 2) Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)

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The theory of evolution

The Theory of Evolution

Chapter 15

Hickox: Baker High School


Charles darwin and natural selection
Charles Darwin and Natural Selection

1) The theory of evolution is the fundamental concept in biology…… Evolution describes the theory of change in populations over time, not individual species.

2) Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)

3) Fossils shaped ideas: Why have

some species become extinct?

4) How are extinct species and

modern species related, if they are?

5) Darwin spent years studying and a trip to Galapagos Islands and wrote “On the Origin of the Species”

Hickox: Baker High School


Artificial and natural selection
Artificial and Natural Selection

6) Darwin observed breeding organism with a certain trait produced offspring with identical traits. This is called artificial selection.

7) Examples:

8) Darwin decided that there must be a similar process in nature. He called this

natural selection.

Hickox: Baker High School


Darwin argued that Successful (adaptive) genotypes become more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in fitness

(9) which is the increase in the ability to survive)

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(10) Natural selection more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in : organism with favorable traits are able to reproduce and pass their traits on to their offspring.

11) Those without favorable traits are more likely to die and those with the favorable trait would be favored.

Which moths are more likely to survive?

Light moths

Dark moths

Light tree

Dark trees

Hickox: Baker High School


Charles Darwin and Natural Selection more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in

Fossils Shaped Darwin’s Ideas

  • Darwin and Scientist wondered how fossils formed and why many fossils species were extinct.

    12) What kinds of relationships might exist between the extinct and modern species?

Hickox: Baker High School


Hickox: Baker High School more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in


Darwin on HMS more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in Beagle

13) At 22 took job as naturalist on English

ship. (5 year scientific journey)

14) Collected biological and fossil specimens

  • Became curious about possible relationships among species…foundations of theory of evolution and Natural Selection

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Evidence for Evolution more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in

15) An adaptation is any variation that aids an organism’s survival in its environment.

Examples of adaptations

16) Mimicry:occurs when one species looks like another species. A harmless species takes on the look of a dangerous species. Predators avoid the harmful and harmless species. Both benefit.

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Mimicry Is An Outcome of Predator-Prey Interactions more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in

If a potential prey species develops an effective defense system, other unprotected prey species may come to mimic the protected species.

The stinging yellow jacket and its harmless mimic, the clearwing moth.

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Mimicry more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in

Disturbed hawkmoth larva. Snake

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17) more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in Camouflage:an adaptation that enables species to blend with their surroundings

Video- Praying Mantis

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Camouflage in the anglerfish
Camouflage in the Anglerfish more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in

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Video: Whale fossils more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in

18) Other evidence:

Fossils:

  • Paleontologist conclude from fossils that the ancestors of whales were probably land-dwelling, doglike animals, but the record is incomplete. They do not have all the fossils for all the changes but still draw conclusions as to the overall picture.

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Structurally similarities
Structurally Similarities more common in subsequent generations, that leads to increase in

(19) Homologous Structures:

The anatomy of different organism show similar patterns. Some believe these structural features show common origin.

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20) Bird and butterfly wings are not similar in structure, but they are similar in function

(what they do - Function).

21) The body parts of organism that do not have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in function are called analogous structures.

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22) Vestigial structure: but they are similar in function

  • A body structure in a present-day body organism that NO longer serves its original purpose, but was probably useful to an ancestor. Examples:

    23) eyes of blind mole-rats are vestigial

    24) cave fish are vestigial

    25) flightless birds (ostrich)

    26) pelvic bones in whales

    27) an adult python pelvic legs can be seen

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Adaptive radiation beak type
Adaptive radiation (Beak type) but they are similar in function

28) Is a type of Divergent evolution in which ancestral species evolve into a variety of species that fit diverse habitats. (Galapagos Islands)

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Darwin s finches adaptive radiation
Darwin’s Finches- Adaptive Radiation but they are similar in function

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29) These finches, better known as 'Darwin's Finches' illustrated adaptive radiation. This is where species all deriving from a common ancestor have over time successfully adapted to their environment via natural selection.

  • Previously, the finches occupied the South American mainland, but somehow managed to occupy the Galapagos islands, over 600 miles away. They occupied an ecological niche with little competition.

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Bird beak adaptation
Bird Beak Adaptation illustrated

Curlew: Long downward curved beak to probe shores for worms in the sediment

Brown Creeper:

Thin bill curves down to probe under bark

Cardinal, Gross Beak:

Beak is used as a nut cracker to crack open nuts and seeds

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Bird beak adaptation1
Bird Beak Adaptation illustrated

Heron: spear like bill for spearing fish and frogs.

Eagle: Short stout beak, hooked upper jaw for tearing flesh.

Flamingo: short downward snout for separating mud and silt from shellfish and algae to eat

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A. illustrated

B.

C.

D.

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Bird beak adaptation2
Bird Beak Adaptation illustrated

Duck Merganser:

Flat Sieve like bill for drinking and catching fish

Pelican: large bill with a stretchable pouch for holding fish caught under water.

Hummingbird. Uses long bill to dipping in flowers and sipping nectar

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Bird beak adaptation3
Bird Beak Adaptation illustrated

Woodpecker: uses its beak like a drill to bore holes in bark to get at the insects

Spoonbill:

to shovel small fish and crustacean from the mud

Skimmer: use lower jaw to skim water to scoop fish from the water.

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Hibernation
Hibernation: illustrated

  • Some mammals, such as bats and chipmunks, and a few other types of animals go into a deep sleep during parts of the winter months.

  • state in which body temperature drops substantially

  • oxygen consumption decreases

  • breathing rates decline to a few breaths per minute

  • Conserves __________,

energy

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Hibernators
Hibernators illustrated

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Migration
Migration: illustrated

  • Instinctive, seasonal movement of animals.

  • In North America, about 2/3 of birds species fly south in fall to areas such as South America.

  • Migration generally occurs to places where breeding occurs in the summer

  • Migration occurs to where food is available during the winter

  • Whales migrate seasonally

  • Migration might be responding to colder temperatures and shorter days

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Migration1
Migration illustrated

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Migration2
Migration illustrated

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Migration3
Migration illustrated

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Continental drift and geographic isolation
Continental Drift and Geographic Isolation illustrated

  • The theory that Africa and South America slowly drifted apart and were once a single landmass.

  • The monkeys on the two continents, although similar have many genetic differences. This is called geographic isolation. Occurs whenever a physical barrier such as a river divides a population; results in individuals of the population no longer able to mate- this can lead to new species

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Figure 25.3 Earth’s crustal plates and plate tectonics (geologic processes resulting from plate movements)


Figure 25 3x1 crustal plate boundaries
Figure 25.3x1 Crustal plate boundaries (geologic processes resulting from plate movements)


Figure 25 3x2 san andreas fault
Figure 25.3x2 San Andreas fault (geologic processes resulting from plate movements)


Figure 25 4 the history of continental drift
Figure 25.4 The history of continental drift (geologic processes resulting from plate movements)





Question 1
Question 1 extinction

Which example BEST describes mimicry?

A. Moving to a new location to obtain food

B. Appearing to look like a different animal

C. Catching prey with sharp teeth

D. Keeping warm with thick fur

B.

Hickox: Baker High School


Question 2
Question 2 extinction

Animals hibernate for many reasons. What is on reason animals would NOT hibernate?

A. To conserve energy

B. To avoid harsh climate conditions

C. To locate prey

D. To survive when food is hard to find

C.

Hickox: Baker High School


Question 3
Question 3 extinction

Which statement describes how some animals may adapt to an environmental change?

A. Urbanization causes some birds to mimic other birds.

B. Deforestation causes some birds to change their beak shape.

C. Natural disasters cause some mammals to hibernate.

D. Seasons cause some mammals to change fur coloration.

d.

Hickox: Baker High School


Question 4
Question 4 extinction

Study the two animals below.

The hoverfly and the wasp have similar coloration and physical characteristics. However, only the wasp can defend itself by stinging potential predators. Which type of protective adaptation is demonstrated by the hoverfly?

A. Stinger B. Mimicry C. Camouflage D. Counershading

b.

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Question 5
Question 5 extinction

Which statement describes an organism’s behavioral adaptation?

A. A chameleon changes its body coloring to blend into its environment

B. An elk has four-chambered stomach to help digest the foods it eats.

C. A shark has a light-colored belly and a dark top side to camouflage it in its habitat.

D. A trumpeter swan has a sharp beak so it can dig for roots underwater.

a.

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Question 6
Question 6 extinction

Study the picture below. For which activity is this bird’s beak best adapted?

A. Tearing flesh B. Spearing fish C. Sipping nectar

D. Chiseling wood

C.

Hickox: Baker High School


Question 7
Question 7 extinction

Study the picture below. For which activity is this bird’s beak best adapted?

A. Tearing flesh B. Spearing fish C. Sipping nectar

D. Chiseling wood

A.

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Question 8
Question 8 extinction

Study the picture below. For which activity is this bird’s beak best adapted?

A. Tearing flesh B. Probing Shoreline for worms

C. Sipping nectar D. Chiseling wood

B.

Hickox: Baker High School


Question 9
Question 9 extinction

Study the picture below. For which activity is this bird’s beak best adapted?

A. Spearing fish and frogs B. Probing Shoreline for worms

C. Sipping nectar D. Chiseling wood

A.

Hickox: Baker High School


Question 10
Question 10 extinction

  • Study the picture below. For which activity is this bird’s beak best adapted?

  • Chiseling wood B. Shoveling and Scooping mud

  • C. Cracking nuts open D. Tearing flesh

C.

Hickox: Baker High School


Question 11
Question 11 extinction

D.

A walking stick is an insect that resembles a stick or branch of a plant. What is the BEST description of this protective adaptation?

A. The walking stick is attracting a mate

B. The walking stick is searching for food

C. The walking stick is preparing for hibernation

D. The walking stick is camouflaging itself from predators.

Hickox: Baker High School


Question 12
Question 12 extinction

Some species of lizards change their body colors to resemble their environment, inflate their bodies or throats, or secrete substances to mark territories. Which of these protective strategies is NOT an adaptation of the lizard?

A. Migration C. Physical change

B. Camouflage D. Chemical defense

A.

Hickox: Baker High School


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