Population. Chapter 5: Pages 108-115 Chapter 6: Pages 123-137. Population Characteristics. Population dynamics – study of how distribution numbers, age structure and density of populations change in response to changes in environmental conditions.
Chapter 5: Pages 108-115
Chapter 6: Pages 123-137
Population dynamics – study of how distribution numbers, age structure and density of populations change in response to changes in environmental conditions.
Most populations live in clumps, uniform dispersion or random dispersion.
Populations with a large number in the “reproductive stage” is likely to increase.
Intrinsic rate of increase (r) – the rate at which a population of a species would grow if it had unlimited resources.
Is r possible?
Smaller organisms have a greater capacity for growth (biotic potential).
R-selected species – capacity for a high rate of population increase. Usually have many small offspring and give little care. (opportunists)
K-selected species – reproduce later in life and have a small number of offspring with fairly long life spans (competitors)
Founder effect – a few members colonize and isolated area.
Demographic bottle neck – only a few individuals of a population survive a catastrophe.
Genetic drift – random changes in gene frequencies due to unequal reproductive success.
Inbreeding – individuals in a small population breed with one another.
All decrease genetic diversity and decrease chances of survival.
Stable, irruptive, cyclic and irregular.
Three major factors account for human population increase: 1. ability to expand into diverse new habitats. 2. modern agriculture
3. sanitation, antibiotics, vaccines
225,000 people are added to earth’s population each day.
Cultural carrying capacity – most people living in reasonable comfort without impairing the ability of the earth to sustain future generations.
Birth and fertility rates are affected by: 1. importance of children in the labor force
2. cost of raising and educating children
3. availability of pension systems
5. educational and employment opportunities for women
6. infant mortality rate – number of children per 1000 births that die before one year of age.
7. Average age at marriage
8. availability of legal abortions
9. availability of birth control
10. religious beliefs, traditions and cultural norms
1. life expectancy – average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
2. infant mortality rate
3. food supplies and distribution
4. better nutrition
Why does the U.S have a higher infant mortality rate (6.6) than other developed countries?
Age structure – the distribution of males and females among age groups in a population.
Age structure diagrams can be used to make population and economic projections.
Demographic transition – as countries become industrialized, first their death rates and then their birth rates decline. (4 stages)
Family planning – providing educational and clinical services so couples can choose how many children they have.
Empowering women – women have fewer children if they are educated, hold a paying job outside the home, and live in societies where their human rights are not suppressed.
Globally women account for 2/3rds of the hours worked and receive only 10% of the worlds income.