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BELL WORK. Have you ever had an emergency, such as a broken bone, insect bite, sprained ankle, nosebleed, poisoning, etc. SAFETY AND EMERGENCIES. FIRST AID FOR COMMON EMERGENCIES. OBJECTIVES. describe the different types of common emergencies.

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BELL WORK

Have you ever had an emergency, such as a broken bone, insect bite, sprained ankle, nosebleed, poisoning, etc.


Safety and emergencies
SAFETY AND EMERGENCIES

FIRST AID FOR COMMON EMERGENCIES


Objectives
OBJECTIVES

  • describethe different types of common emergencies.

  • explainfirst-aid treatments for common emergencies.

  • identifywhen it is time to call for medical assistance.


Common emergencies
COMMON EMERGENCIES

Insect bites

Burns

Poisoning

Object in the Eye

Nosebleed

Fainting

HeatCramps

Heatstroke

Sprains

Bruises

BrokenBones


Sprain
SPRAIN

A minor sprain can be treated using the P.R.I.C.E method.

sprain A condition in which the ligaments that hold the joints in position are stretched or torn


P r i c e

P

Protect the inured part by keeping it still.

R

Rest the affected joint for 24 to 48 hours.

I

Ice the injured part to reduce swelling and pain.

C

Compress the injured area by wrapping it in an elastic bandage.

E

Elevate the injured part above the level of the heart.

P.R.I.C.E.

The P.R.I.C.E. Method


Fracture

Open Fracture

Closed Fracture

Complete break with one or both sides of the bone piercing the skin.

Does not break the skin and may be difficult to identify.

FRACTURE

There are two types of fractures.

fracture A break in the bone


Insect bites
INSECT BITES

  • Wash the area of the bite.

  • Apply a special lotion for relief.

  • Remove the insect’s stinger by scraping against the affected area with a fingernail.

  • Apply ice or a cold pack to relive pain and prevent swelling.


Burns
BURNS

First-Degree Burns

Description

Treatment

  • Affects only the outer layer of the skin.

  • There may be some swelling and pain.

  • Cool the burn with running water.

  • Immerse the burn in cold water, or apply cold compress for at least 15 minutes.

  • Cover the burn with a sterile bandage.


Burns1
BURNS

Second-Degree Burns

Description

Treatment

  • Burns through the first layer of skin and burns the second layer of skin.

  • Blisters develop.

  • Skin looks red and splotchy.

  • Severe pain and swelling.

  • If the burn is no longer than 2 to 3 inches in diameter, can be treated as a first-degree burn.

  • If the burn is larger, get medical help immediately.


Burns2
BURNS

Third-Degree Burns

Description

Treatment

  • Involves all layers of the skin and may affect fat, muscle, and bone.

  • Burned area may be charred black or appear dry and white.

  • May be little or no pain.

  • A pain deeper than the skin is called a fourth-degree burn.

  • First, call for medical help.

  • Treat the victim for shock as described in Lesson 6.

  • Do not remove burned clothing.

  • Apply cold water to the burn, then cover with a sterile bandage or clean cloth.

  • Keep the victim still and help him or her to sip fluids.


Poisioning
POISIONING

A poison is a substance that causes harm when swallowed, inhaled, absorbed by the skin, or injected into the body.

Medicines and household products play a role in about half of all poisonings.


Poisioning1
POISIONING

Call the nearest poison control center.

UTAH POISON CONTROL CENTER


Poisioning2
POISIONING

If a poisonous chemical has made contact with someone’s skin, remove all clothing that has touched the chemical and then wash the surface of the skin for 15 minutes. Call the poison control center.


Foreign object in eye
FOREIGN OBJECT IN EYE

Do not rub your eye.

Use clean water to flush the object out.


Foreign object in eye1
FOREIGN OBJECT IN EYE

  • If someone else has a foreign object in the eye:

    • Locate the object by gently pulling the lower lid downward while the person looks up.

    • Hold the upper lid open while the person looks down.

    • If the object is floating on the surface of the eye, lightly touch the object with a moistened cotton swab.

    • Call for medical attention if you cannot remove the object.


Nosebleed
NOSEBLEED

Pinch shut the bleeding nose between the thumb and index finger.

Breath through your mouth for 5 to 10 minutes.

If the bleeding is heavy and it continues for more than 15 minutes, get medical help.


Fainting
FAINTING

Fainting is a brief loss of consciousness that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is cut off for a short amount of time.


Fainting1
FAINTING

Leave the person lying down and check the airway.

Raise the legs above the level of the head if the person is breathing.

Loosen any tight clothing.

If the person does not regain consciousness in a minute, call for help and start CPR.


Heat exhaustion
HEAT EXHAUSTION

Three heat-related illnesses are heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heatstroke.

heat cramps Painful, involuntary muscle spasms that usually occur during strenuous exercise in hot weather

heat exhaustion Characterized by faintness, nausea, rapid heartbeat and hot, red, dry, or sweaty skin

heatstroke The most serious form of heat illness


Heat cramps
HEAT CRAMPS

Heat Cramps

Rest

Cool down

Drink water or a sports drink

Do gentle stretching


Heat exhaustion1
HEAT EXHAUSTION

Heat Exhaustion

Lie down in a shady or air-conditioned place

Elevate the feet

Loosen clothing

Offer cold, not iced water

Fan the victim while spraying them with cool water


Heatstroke
HEATSTROKE

Heatstroke

  • A heatstroke occurs because the body has stopped sweating.

  • The primary symptoms are a significant increase in the body temperature and a rapid heartbeat and shallow breathing.

Call immediately for medical assistance.


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