The sonnet
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The Sonnet. A sonnet is. a lyric poem consisting of fourteen lines written in iambic pentameter with a definite rhyme scheme and a definite thought structure. A lyric poem. Deals with emotions, feelings And has musical qualities. Iambic pentameter consists of.

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The Sonnet

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The sonnet

The Sonnet


A sonnet is

A sonnet is

  • a lyric poem

  • consisting of fourteen lines

  • written in iambic pentameter

  • with a definite rhyme scheme

  • and a definite thought structure


A lyric poem

A lyric poem

  • Deals with emotions, feelings

  • And has musical qualities


Iambic pentameter consists of

Iambic pentameter consists of

  • five measures, units, or meters, of

  • iambs


An iamb is a metrical foot consisting of an unaccented syllable u followed by an accented syllable

An iamb is a metrical foot consisting ofan unaccented syllable Ufollowed by an accented syllable /.

U /

a gain

U / U /

im mor tal ize


Iambic pentameter

Iambic pentameter

1 2 3 4 5

U / U / U / U / U /

  • One day I wrote her name up on the strand,

    U / U / U / U / U /

  • But came the waves and wash ed it a way:

    U / U / U / U / U /

  • A gain I wrote it with a sec ond hand,

    U / U / U / U / U /

  • But came the tide, and made my pains his prey

    • Edmund Spenser, Amoretti, Sonnet 75


Rhyme scheme

Rhyme Scheme

  • Petrarchan (Italian) rhyme scheme:

    abba, abba, cdcdcd

    abba, abba, cde, cde

  • Shakespearean (English, or Elizabethan) rhyme scheme:

    abab, cdcd, efef, gg


Sonnet 18

Sonnet 18

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer's lease hath all too short a date:

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimmed,

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:

But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,

Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,

So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,

So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

A

B

A

B

C

d

C

D

E

F

E

F

G

G


Thought structure

Thought structure

  • Italian Sonnet Form--Octave/ sestet

    The octave, eight lines, presents a situation or idea.

    The sestet (sextet), six lines, responds, to the situation or idea in the octave.

    The ninth line, where the idea shifts from the octave to the sestet, is called the volta.

  • Shakespearean Sonnet Form--Quatrain, quatrain, quatrain, couplet

    Each quatrain, four lines, describes an idea or situation which leads to a conclusion or response in the couplet, two lines.


Sonnet 181

Sonnet 18

The octave describes the ways in which the summer’s day is inferior to the beloved.

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

And summer's lease hath all too short a date:

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

And often is his gold complexion dimmed,

And every fair from fair sometime declines,

By chance, or nature's changing course untrimmed:

But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,

Nor shall death brag thou wander'st in his shade,

When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st,So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

The sestet describes the ways in which the beloved is superior to the summer’s day.


Sonnet 29

Sonnet 29

The diction of the first two quatrains implies the speaker’s self-pity and depression.

When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes

I all alonebeweep my outcast state,

And troubledeaf heaven with my bootlesscries,

And look upon myself, and curse my fate,

Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,

Featured like him, like him with friends possessed,

Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope,

With what I most enjoy contented least;

Yet in these thoughts my self almost despising,

Haply I think on thee, and then my state,

Like to the lark at break of day arising

From sullen earth, singshymns at heaven's gate;

For thy sweet love remembered such wealth bringsThat then I scorn to change my state with kings.

The third quatrain’sdiction, in conrast, is joyful, and this joy is affirmed in the couplet.


Sonnet 73

Sonnet 73

That time of year thou mayst in me beholdWhen yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hangUpon those boughs which shake against the cold,Bare ruined choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.In me thou see'st the twilight of such dayAs after sunset fadeth in the west;Which by and by black night doth take away,Death's second self, that seals up all in rest. In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire,That on the ashes of his youth doth lie,As the death-bed, whereon it must expire,Consum'd with that which it was nourish'd by.This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,To love that well, which thou must leave ere long.

1st Quatrain

Year - Fall

2nd Quatrain Day - Twilight

3rd Quatrain

Fire - Coals

“This” is ll.1-12


Sonnet 731

Sonnet 73

Year

That time is running out is what the beloved perceives.

Time is rapidly shortening.

Day

Hour


The unsonnet

The Unsonnet

Loving in truth, and fain in verse my love to show,

That she, dear she, might take some pleasure of my pain,

Pleasure might cause her to read, reading might make her know,

Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain,—

I sought fit words to paint the blackest face of woe ;

Studying inventions fine, her wits to entertain,

Oft turning others' leaves to see if thence would flow

Some fresh and fruitful showers upon my sun-burned brain.

But words came halting forth, wanting invention's stay ;

Invention, nature's child, fled step-dame Study's blows,

And others' feet still seemed but strangers in my way.

Thus, great with child to speak, and helpless in my throes,Biting my truant pen, beating myself for spite,Fool, said my muse to me, look in thy heart and write.

Philip Sidney, Astrophel and Stella, Sonnet 1


The sonnet

Loving in truth, and fain in verse my love to show,

That she, dear she, might take some pleasure of my pain,

Pleasure might cause her to read, reading might make her know,

Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain,—


The sonnet

I sought fit words to paint the blackest face of woe ;

Studying inventions fine, her wits to entertain,

Oft turning others' leaves to see if thence would flow

Some fresh and fruitful showers upon my sun-burned brain.


The sonnet

But words came halting forth, wanting invention's stay ;

Invention, nature's child, fled step-dame Study's blows,

And others' feet still seemed but strangers in my way.

Thus, great with child to speak, and helpless in my throes,Biting my truant pen, beating myself for spite,Fool, said my muse to me, look in thy heart and write.


The sonnet

/ U / / U U /

Plea sure might cause her to read,

/ U / / U /

read ing might make her know

Trochee: / U Spondee: / /


The unsonnet1

The Unsonnet

Loving in truth, and fain in verse my love to show,

That she, dear she, might take some pleasure of my pain,

Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know,

Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain,—

I sought fit words to paint the blackest face of woe ;

Studying inventions fine, her wits to entertain,

Oft turning others' leaves to see if thence would flow

Some fresh and fruitful showers upon my sun-burned brain.

But words came halting forth, wanting invention's stay ;

Invention, nature's child, fled step-dame Study's blows,

And others' feet still seemed but strangers in my way.

Thus, great with child to speak, and helpless in my throes,Biting my truant pen, beating myself for spite,Fool, said my muse to me, look in thy heart and write.

Philip Sidney, Astrophel and Stella, Sonnet 1


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