MEASUREMENT OF LOCAL SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE AND THE ROLES OF PIONEERING MUNICIPALITIES.
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MEASUREMENT OF LOCAL SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE AND THE ROLES OF PIONEERING MUNICIPALITIES. DR. THOMAS HOPPE DR. FRANS H.J.M. COENEN. TWENTE CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN TECHNOLOGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. CSTM – INSTITUTE FOR INNOVATION AND GOVERNANCE STUDIES. IGS - UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

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MEASUREMENT OF LOCAL SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE AND THE ROLES OF PIONEERING MUNICIPALITIES.DR. THOMAS HOPPEDR. FRANS H.J.M. COENEN

TWENTE CENTRE FOR STUDIES IN TECHNOLOGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. CSTM – INSTITUTE FOR INNOVATION AND GOVERNANCE STUDIES. IGS - UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE.

Conference Europe Matters, Nijmegen, 20 September 2012

Workshop European Pioneers in EnvironmentalPolicy andSustainability.

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Presentation outline
PRESENTATION OUTLINE ROLES OF PIONEERING MUNICIPALITIES.

  • Relevance

  • Enabling factors forlocalsustainability

  • Performance measurement

  • Case study: The Netherlands (LSM)

  • Lessonsfrom LSM 1999-2009

  • Pioneeringmunicipalities

  • More information

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Relevance
RELEVANCE ROLES OF PIONEERING MUNICIPALITIES.

  • Environmental impacts manifest themselves at local level.

  • Sustainable development requires all government levels.

  • Local authorities easy accessible government for citizens.

  • Focus on adoption and implementation of sustainable development policies by local authorities.

  • Local authorities: units of observation.

  • Lack of research on local sustainability policy goal achievement (only on specialized fields).

  • Few coordinated attempts to monitor local sustainability program performance.

  • Few attempts to analyse these data.

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Research questions
RESEARCH QUESTIONS ROLES OF PIONEERING MUNICIPALITIES.

1. What does local sustainability performance measurement mean in practice and what can we learn from a decade of experiences in the Netherlands?

2. What is the role of pioneerstherein?

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Performance measurement of public organizations
PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS MUNICIPALITIES

  • Whymeasure performance?

  • What is measured?

  • How is measured?

  • Whomeasures?

  • Whathappenswith the data collected?

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Performance measurent of public bodies
PERFORMANCE MEASURENT OF PUBLIC BODIES MUNICIPALITIES

  • Show how well public policy program(s) benefit the populace.

  • Public officials need (togain) legitimacy.

  • Transparency of policy program(s).

  • Accountability of public officials.

  • Publication of performance measurement of public bodies is considered a democratic right.

  • A means to control budget spendingby public officials.

  • Performance measurement as a key element of New Public Management (NPM): “Running government as a business firm”.

  • Modernization trend of governmentsduring 1990’s in OECD countries.

  • Benchmarking and monitoring. Means toevaluateandmodify programs.

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Case the local sustainability metre lsm
CASE: THE LOCAL SUSTAINABILITY METRE (LSM) MUNICIPALITIES

  • Trend diffused from business sector (CSR) and New Public Management (NPM).

  • Developed in late 1990s following National LA21 agenda.

  • Implemented by NGO COS.

  • Data collection since 1999.

  • 8 editions so far; results reported and publicly accessible (www.duurzaamheidsmeter.nl).

  • PPP-approach to measure sustainability.

  • Sample: all Dutch municipalities are contacted. Some respond.

  • Data collection: online survey.

  • Objective: toencouragemunicipalitiestoadoptprogressivesustainabilitypolicies.

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What is measured
WHAT IS MEASURED? MUNICIPALITIES

  • Local Sustainability: a pluriform construct (PPP)

  • People

    • Gender

    • International Treaties / regional networks

    • Social

  • Planet

    • Climate

    • Water

    • Nature

  • Profit

    • Corporate Social Responsibility

    • Sustainable purchasing

  • Example: items climate policy (planet)

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Lessons from lsm 1999 2009 1
LESSONS FROM LSM 1999-2009 (1) MUNICIPALITIES

Variation in response accrossyears

Variation in performance accrossyears

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Lessons from lsm 1999 2009 2
LESSONS FROM LSM 1999-2009 (2) MUNICIPALITIES

  • Multi-year top-10 rankings

  • A few usual suspects.

  • Bot also newcomers and pioneers that disappear.

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Lessons from lsm 1999 2009 3
LESSONS FROM LSM 1999 – 2009 (3) MUNICIPALITIES

  • Pioneers remain ahead!

  • Size matters.

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Lessons from lsm 1999 2009 4
LESSONS FROM LSM 1999 – 2009 (4) MUNICIPALITIES

  • Laggards catch up!

Furtherlessons:

  • Signs of competitivenessamong top performers.

  • Somepioneers do notrespondany more to LSM, anddeveloptheirown ‘safe’ performance measures. Strategic behavior. Politicalreasoning.

  • Adoption of LSM tool byotherdecentralgovernments (provinces, water boards).

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On the role of pioneering municipalities
ON THE ROLE OF PIONEERING MUNICIPALITIES MUNICIPALITIES

Pioneers differ due to:

  • early involvement;

  • above average performance;

  • long term commitment;

  • geographical location within a particular region with favorable conditions;

  • adoption of corporate social responsibility principles;

  • more international and regional network memberships;

  • (large) organizational size (and hence capacity).

    However: many important items from our framework are not easy to incorporate in survey-based data collection. More in-depth (comparative) research is needed, as well as research on methodological caveats in current surveying.

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Methodological and conceptual remarks
Methodological and conceptual remarks MUNICIPALITIES

  • Sample is biased (municipalitysize, progressive Boards).

  • Respondents suffer from ‘fatigue’.

  • Indinctness on meaning of questionnaire items and ‘sustainability’ in particular.

  • Many items cannotsimplybeansweredwith ‘yes’ of ‘no’.

  • What is measured is ‘output’, not ‘ outcome’.

  • Politicaldimensionnotmeasured.

  • Online publication of results leads tostrategicbehaviour.

  • Data set difficulttouseforscientificpurposes.

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Research agenda
RESEARCH AGENDA MUNICIPALITIES

5 propositions:

  • Voluntary disclosure of a municipality’s own performance leads to more action, and hence better performance.

  • Benchmarking leads to the use of other participants’ ideas and practices (a motivation to share information).

  • Early participants have a competitive edge to newcomers and tend to remain ahead for years.

  • The performances (in terms of policy output) of municipalities are unevenly distributed in the self-reporting model as compared to the regulation model which sets mandatory performance standards.

  • Voluntary withdrawal by municipalities creates biased results. Stratification sampling leads to less biased results.

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More information
MORE INFORMATION MUNICIPALITIES

Please, look at the followingpublications:

  • Hoppe, T., and M. Klein. (2012). Meting van duurzame ontwikkeling op lokaal niveau. Milieu Dossier, 18 (4), 50-54.

  • Hoppe, Thomas, and FransCoenen. (2011). Creating an analytical framework for local sustainability performance: a Dutch Case Study. Local Environment, 16 (3), 229-250.

  • Hoppe, T. and F.H.J.M. Coenen. (2011). What Does Pioneering Mean in Local Sustainability Governance? A Case Study of the Netherlands. Paper presented at the 6th ECPR General Conference, held at the University of Iceland from 24-2, Reykjavik. 7 August 2011 in the panel: Pioneers in Environmental Policy Revisited.

  • Coenen, F.H.J.M. and T. Hoppe. (2010). Globale uitdagingen op lokaal niveau, Bestuurswetenschappen,(3), pp. 77-92.

  • For Local Sustainability Metre see: www.duurzaamheidsmeter.nl

  • Contact me at: [email protected]

  • CSTM.


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