Instructions for staff
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INSTRUCTIONS FOR STAFF. ENSURE THAT YOU HAVE PRINTED OFF ENOUGH COPIES OF THE CARTOON SLIDES (18-23) AT THE END OF THIS POWERPOINT FOR ONE BETWEEN TWO OF YOUR STUDENTS AND THAT YOU HAVE THE DOUBLE SIDED LAMINATED CARTOONS FOR DISTRIBUTION

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INSTRUCTIONS FOR STAFF

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Instructions for staff

INSTRUCTIONS FOR STAFF

ENSURE THAT YOU HAVE PRINTED OFF ENOUGH COPIES OF THE CARTOON SLIDES (18-23) AT THE END OF THIS POWERPOINT FOR ONE BETWEEN TWO OF YOUR STUDENTS

AND THAT YOU HAVE THE DOUBLE SIDED LAMINATED CARTOONS FOR DISTRIBUTION

Realistically this lesson will take two lessons to go through if you want to use all the cartoons, or at quite a pace, which ever you prefer

If you are in a computer room they could go to this website

http://sunnycv.com/steve/20th/truman47.html

Where they can look through lots of the news of the time to see events unfolding – this is good for the second batch of cartoons.


Instructions for staff

Thought for you:

Have you ever bought a birthday present for someone ONLY because you know you’ll get one back from them, rather than buying it just because you care?


Instructions for staff

  • CONTROLLED ASSESSMENT:

  • Cold War Relations 1941-1965

  • Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism

  • What caused the Cold War?


Instructions for staff

VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism

  • Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2

  • Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons

What was the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Aid?

Why did the Soviets nickname it “Dollar Imperialism”?

TASK

Use the political cartoons being handed around the room to try to work out what you think TRUMAN DOCTRINE and MARSHALL AID are and explain why you think it.

WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?


Instructions for staff

SOURCE P

This Russian cartoon from 1947 shows Uncle Sam on the left and on the right are Greek communists.


Instructions for staff

An American cartoon.


Instructions for staff

An American cartoon.


Instructions for staff

SOURCE Q

This cartoon of 1 October 1947 by EH Shepard for the British magazine Punch shows Marshall (on the left) telling 'Uncle Sam' - i.e. the American nation - that American Aid is needed to shore up the countries of western Europe: 'Come on Sam! It's up to us again.'


Instructions for staff

An American cartoon from the Buffalo Evening News.


Instructions for staff

SOURCE R

This cartoon of 18 June 1947 by EH Shepard for the British magazine Punch shows Truman and Stalin as two taxi-drivers trying to get customers. 

The 'customers' are labelled 'Turkey', Hungary', 'Bulgaria', 'Austria’


Instructions for staff

VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism

  • Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2

  • Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons

NEXT TASK

Pass the cartoon you have to the next group, then chose the right question for you to answer in your book

GRADE C TARGET - Explain why the USA gave money to countries in Europe who wanted it.

GRADE BTARGET - Why would the USSR want to stop countries in Eastern Europe receiving this money?

GRADE A TARGET – How could Marshall Aid lead to tension between the USA and the USSR?

WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?


Instructions for staff

VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism

  • Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2

  • Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons

FOLLOW UP TASK

Pass the cartoon you have to the next group, then chose the right question for you to answer in your book

GRADE C TARGET – Describe the cartoon in front of you with details about which nationality the cartoonist is.

GRADE BTARGET – Describe and Explain the cartoon in front of you with reference to whether or not you think it gives a true reflection of Marshall Aid

GRADE A TARGET – Describe, Explain and make a Judgement about the cartoon in front of you – how reliable is it about Marshall Aid? How reliable are political cartoons in general?

WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?


Instructions for staff

VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism

  • Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2

  • Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons

  • PENULTIMATE TASK

  • The next cartoons (laminated sheets) are all British and therefore will have a degree of pro-Capitalist / anti-Communist bias. When you look at the image do the following in your group:

  • Discuss what the relationship is like between (where relevant):

    • USA and USSR

    • USA and Europe

    • USSR and Europe

    • The American government and the American people

  • Discuss why the USA are offering to help rebuild European countries

    • Do they have an ulterior motive or not?

WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?


Instructions for staff

VI – Doctrine and Aid: Dollar Imperialism

  • Explain why the USA wanted to help Europe recover from WW2

  • Evaluate the reliability of political cartoons

  • FINAL TASK

  • Turn over your cartoon to get the NEWS of that time. In one word how would describe American-Soviet relations?

  • 3. Words to consider

    • Cordial (OK)

    • Tense (awkward)

    • Fraught (becoming dangerous)

    • Hostile (could lead to violence)

  • When does it get worse and why?

  • WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?


    Instructions for staff

    Compare this to the idea of the “Liberation” of Eastern Europe, which is worse:

    “Liberation” or “Dollar Imperialism”

    WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR?


    Instructions for staff

    Final thought for you:

    Did the USA give money to European countries ONLY because they wanted to “buy” their loyalty, rather than giving money just because they cared?

    Thought for you:

    Have you ever bought a birthday present for someone ONLY because you know you’ll get one back from them, rather than buying it just because you care?


    Instructions for staff

    THE FOLLOWING SLIDES ARE FOR PRINTING OFF

    18-23

    WHILST 24-37 SHOULD ALREADY BE PRINTED DOUBLE SIDED AND LAMINATED FOR YOU


    Instructions for staff

    SOURCE P

    This Russian cartoon from 1947 shows Uncle Sam on the left and on the right are Greek communists.


    Instructions for staff

    An American cartoon.


    Instructions for staff

    An American cartoon.


    Instructions for staff

    SOURCE Q

    This cartoon of 1 October 1947 by EH Shepard for the British magazine Punch shows Marshall (on the left) telling 'Uncle Sam' - i.e. the American nation - that American Aid is needed to shore up the countries of western Europe: 'Come on Sam! It's up to us again.'


    Instructions for staff

    An American cartoon from the Buffalo Evening News.


    Instructions for staff

    SOURCE R

    This cartoon of 18 June 1947 by EH Shepard for the British magazine Punch shows Truman and Stalin as two taxi-drivers trying to get customers. 

    The 'customers' are labelled 'Turkey', Hungary', 'Bulgaria', 'Austria’


    Instructions for staff

    Artist:

    David Low (1891-1963)

    Published:

    Evening Standard, 17 Jun 1947

    U.S. Secretary of State Marshall outlined a plan to aid Europe, including Britain, Russia, and "everything west of Asia". If European countries brought all their national plans together, America offered financial and material help to revive a working economy in the world. Moscow purported to see in this just a repetition of Truman's declaration of three months before concerning Greece, whereby the US offered aid to free peoples resisting totalitarian pressure. The whole idea was, to Moscow, an attempt to enslave Europe with dollars.


    Instructions for staff

    Artist:

    David Low (1891-1963)

    Published:

    Evening Standard, 14 Mar 1947

    The Communists seemed to be winning the civil war in Greece when the Foreign Ministers' Conference at Moscow was shaken by the announcement by President Truman from Washington of a new policy: The US, as an "investment in world freedom", in the future would actively assist free peoples to resist attempts to impose totalitarian regimes upon them. As a start, the US would help the Greek government to defend itself in its war against the Communist aided revolutionaries.


    Instructions for staff

    Artist:

    David Low (1891-1963)

    Published:

    Evening Standard, 06 Mar 1947

    News: Mar 12. US President Truman told Congress today that America must abandon her traditional policy of isolationism and intervene throughout the world to oppose Communism. "I would not recommend it except that the alternative is much more serious. The foreign policy and national security of this country are involved", he said in a speech calling for an immediate 400 million dollars in aid to the Greek and Turkish governments, who are opposed by Communist rebels.


    Instructions for staff

    Artist:

    David Low (1891-1963)

    Published:

    Evening Standard, 24 Jun 1947

    News: June 19. Bevin warns the USSR that "appeasement" in Anglo-Soviet relation is over. June 22. The USSR agrees to attend talks with Britain and France on the Marshall Plan for European aid.


    Instructions for staff

    Artist:

    David Low (1891-1963)

    Published:

    Evening Standard, 15 Jul 1947

    News: July 15. After a meeting in Paris of only two days, foreign ministers of all European countries, with the exception of the Soviet block and Finland, agreed on a European recovery programme to be put to the United States. "It was the quickest conference I have ever have ever presided over," Ernest Bevin, British Foreign Secretary, said last night. The recovery programme, drawn up at the invitation of George C. Marshall, US Secretary of State, will be funded by the US. Last month, Marshall warned that Europe must have help or "face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character." ... [Chronicle of the 20th century] As a first step to the Marshall plan, the European statesmen met in Paris to draw up a balance sheet of needs and resources, to see how they could help one another and how much American aid was required to put Europe on its feet. Bidault, for France, said that the resources of Germany should be used for everybody, including the Germans, which was interpreted as meaning that the restriction of the Potsdam Agreement would not be regarded as inviolate.


    Instructions for staff

    Artist:

    Illingworth, Leslie Gilbert, 1902-1979

    Published:

    Daily Mail, 15 July 1947

    News: July 13. Marshall aid plan splits Europeans. After a meeting in Paris of only two days, foreign ministers of all European countries, with the exception of the Soviet bloc (including Czechoslovakia and Poland) and Finland, agreed on a European recovery programme to be put to the United States.


    Instructions for staff

    Artist:

    David Low (1891-1963)

    Published:

    Evening Standard, 19 Sep 1947

    As a change from the Soviet denunciations of the bolstering-up by Britain and America of the Greek Government, Marshall demanded that the UN should consider the great numbers of troops and quantity of material which the communists were sending to help the Greek guerrillas. The UN should discuss this and similar situations, said Marshall, if it wanted to keep healthy. Vishinsky, on the other hand thought the UN should try to lead a quiet life and, in this case, avoid excitement.


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