Asphalt pavement design guide for parking lots and low volume roads
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South Carolina Asphalt Pavement Association. Asphalt Pavement Design Guide for Parking Lots and Low-Volume Roads. Brad Putman, PhD Associate Professor Glenn Department of Civil Engineering [email protected] Agenda. Background Design considerations Thickness design Mix selection

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Asphalt pavement design guide for parking lots and low volume roads

South Carolina

Asphalt Pavement Association

Asphalt Pavement DesignGuidefor Parking Lots and Low-Volume Roads

Brad Putman, PhD

Associate Professor

Glenn Department of Civil Engineering

[email protected]


Agenda

Agenda

Background

Design considerations

Thickness design

Mix selection

Construction

Bonus features

Focus group input


Please note

Please Note

The contents of this presentation is based on the upcoming

South Carolina Asphalt Pavement Design Guide

for Parking Lots and Low-Volume Roads

This publication is currently under development by SCAPA and will be available in the Fall 2013. The final contents of the guide may vary somewhat from this presentation.


The road show

The Road Show

SC Engineering Conference & Trade Show

North Charleston, SC (June 14, 2013)

ASCE Upstate Branch

Greenville, SC (June 25, 2013)


Scapa

SCAPA

Non-profit trade association dedicated to the promotion of asphalt concrete.

“Together we know more”

A resource…here to help

www.scasphalt.org


Background and need

Background and Need

What guidelines are available for commercial and local paving projects?

Is a parking lot or subdivision the same as US 17, Dorchester Rd., or other high traffic roadways?

Is the traffic the same?

Do low-volume pavements fail in the same way as higher-volume roads?

So why do we use the same design methods and specifications?

Potential cost savings with alternate designs and materials.


Typical asphalt pavement section

Typical Asphalt Pavement Section

Asphalt Base Course

(Full-Depth Asphalt)

Aggregate Base Course

Asphalt Surface Course

Asphalt Intermediate Course

Asphalt Base Course

Aggregate Base Course

Subgrade


Design considerations

Design Considerations

  • Why do pavements fail?

    • Traffic

    • Subgrade

    • Drainage

    • Environment

    • Materials

    • Construction

    • Design

    • Other


Other pavement design guides

Other Pavement Design Guides

There are others, but I left my list in Clemson


Contents of the design guide

Contents of the Design Guide

  • Construction

    • Best practices

    • Checklists

  • Glossary

  • Technical Notes

    • Specific topics

  • Contact Information

  • SCAPA

  • Introduction

    • Mission of the Guide

    • Asphalt and its advantages

  • Pavement Design

    • Design considerations

    • Pavement materials

    • Thickness design


Design considerations traffic

Design Considerations [Traffic]

Class 1

(≤ 50 cars/day)

Class 2

(≤ 5 trucks/day)

Class 3

(≤ 65 trucks/day)

Class 4

(≤ 200 trucks/day)

  • Driveways

  • Play areas

  • Parking lots (≤ 50 stalls)

  • Seasonal recreation roads

  • Residential streets

  • Parking lots (> 50 stalls)

  • Collector streets

  • Industrial lots, truck stalls

  • Bus driveways & loading zones

  • Major arterial streets

  • Local business streets

  • Local industrial streets

  • Major service drives or entrances


Design considerations subgrade

Design Considerations [Subgrade]

Any structure is only as good as the foundation upon which it is built.


Design considerations subgrade1

Design Considerations [Subgrade]

Poor

Medium

Good

  • Retain a moderate degree of firmness under adverse moisture conditions.

  • Loams, silty sands, and sandy-gravels containing moderate amounts of clays and fine silts.

  • Typical properties

    • CBR: 6–9

    • LL: 25–40

    • PI: 6–10

    • Soil types

      • A-4, A-5

  • Become soft and plastic when wet.

  • Clays and fine silts

    • ≥ 50% passing No. 200

  • Coarse silts and sandy loams

    • Deep frost penetration

    • High water table

  • Typical properties

    • CBR < 6

    • LL ≥ 40

    • PI ≥ 10

  • Retain a substantial amount of their load-supporting capacity when wet.

  • Clean sands, sand-gravels, and those free of detrimental amounts of plastic fines.

    • ≤ 10% passing No. 200

  • Relatively unaffected by moisture or frost.

  • Typical properties

    • CBR ≥ 10

    • LL ≤ 25

    • PI ≤ 6

    • Soil types

      • A-1, A-2, A-3


Design considerations subgrade2

Design Considerations [Subgrade]


Design considerations drainage

Design Considerations [Drainage]

  • Three keys to pavement design:

    • DRAINAGE, DRAINAGE, DRAINAGE

  • Surface drainage

    • Safety

    • Prevent water from entering pavement surface

  • Subsurface drainage

    • Areas with high water table

    • Areas where water accumulates in low areas


Design considerations drainage1

Design Considerations [Drainage]

Tuesday, July 23, 2013


Design considerations drainage2

Design Considerations [Drainage]


Thickness design

Thickness Design

  • Design inputs

    • Subgrade

    • Traffic

  • Asphalt or aggregate base?


Layer thickness selection

Layer Thickness Selection

Full-Depth Asphalt


Thickness design1

Thickness Design

  • Design inputs

    • Subgrade

    • Traffic

  • Asphalt or aggregate base?

  • Equivalence

    • 1 in. of Asphalt Base ≈ 2–3 in. of Aggregate Base


Layer thickness selection1

Layer Thickness Selection

Asphalt with Aggregate Base Course


Asphalt mix selection

Asphalt Mix Selection

Project A

  • City street reconstruction as part of a downtown redevelopment.

  • Total thickness = 5½ in.

5½ in.

What mix should I choose and how thick should each layer of asphalt be?


Asphalt mix selection1

Asphalt Mix Selection

High Traffic

3

Medium Traffic

2

Minimum Lift Thickness, in.

Low Traffic

1

½

0

E

D

C

B

Surface Mix Type


Asphalt mix selection2

Asphalt Mix Selection

Type C Surface Course

  • Typical Applications

  • Traffic Class 2 & 3

  • ADT: 1,500 – 5,000

Example Surface Texture


Asphalt mix selection3

Asphalt Mix Selection

Project A

  • City street reconstruction as part of a downtown redevelopment.

  • Total thickness = 5½ in.

1½ in.

Surface C

Intermediate

Type C

2½ in.

5½ in.

2 in.

4 in.

2 in.

1½ in.

What mix should I choose and how thick should each layer of asphalt be?


A typical parking lot

A typical parking lot

Access Street

Building

Building

Building

Building


Thickness design2

Thickness Design

Class 1

(≤ 50 cars/day)

Class 2

(≤ 5 trucks/day)

Class 3

(≤ 65 trucks/day)

Class 4

(≤ 200 trucks/day)

  • Driveways

  • Play areas

  • Parking lots (≤ 50 stalls)

  • Seasonal recreation roads

  • Residential streets

  • Parking lots (> 50 stalls)

  • Collector streets

  • Industrial lots, truck stalls

  • Bus driveways & loading zones

  • Major arterial streets

  • Local business streets

  • Local industrial streets

  • Major service drives or entrances


A typical parking lot1

A typical parking lot

Access Street

Building

Building

Building

Building


A typical parking lot2

A typical parking lot

Access Street

Building

Building

Building

Building


A typical parking lot3

A typical parking lot

Access Street

Building

Building

Building

Building


Pavement construction

Pavement Construction

  • Best practices

    • Subgrade preparation

    • Base construction

    • Asphalt paving

      • Conditions

      • Tack

      • Laydown

      • Compaction

  • Asphalt mix production

  • Staged construction (especially for subdivisions)

  • Quality contractors (SCAPA members)


What else

What Else?

  • Asphalt pavement glossary

  • Sample specifications

  • Special topics

    • Distress glossary

    • Resurfacing

    • Maintenance

    • Surface treatments

    • Aggregate

    • Sustainability

    • …and much, much more


We asked attendees for their input

We Asked Attendees for Their Input


Focus group suggestions

Focus Group Suggestions

  • Annual maintenance plans & costs

    • Change of ownership from private to public

  • Staged construction

  • Warranties

  • Maintenance of existing pavements

  • Details for tie-ins

  • Porous asphalt

  • Maneuvering of large trucks in small areas

  • Geosynthetics

  • Soil amendments

  • Buy-in from cities and counties

  • Separate guides for parking lots and low-volume roads

  • Vehicle types to consider

  • Verify pavement designs with established methods


Coming soon

Coming Soon

FALL 2013

South Carolina Asphalt Pavement Design Guide

for Parking Lots and Low-Volume Roads

“Together we know more”

www.scasphalt.org


Asphalt pavement design guide for parking lots and low volume roads

  • Brad Putman, PhD

  • Associate Professor

  • Glenn Department of Civil Engineering

  • [email protected]


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