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The Unification of Italy Part 1. Mazzini and Garibaldi. Italy before Unification. Italy never existed as one country. It was a group of small city states or kingdoms that was linked together only by language and culture.

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The Unification of Italy Part 1

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The unification of italy part 1

The Unification of ItalyPart 1

Mazzini and Garibaldi

Italy before unification

Italy before Unification

  • Italy never existed as one country.

  • It was a group of small city states or kingdoms that was linked together only by language and culture.

  • However, since Nationalism hit Italy, (again we see the influence of Napoleon) Italians began to feel like they should be together in one strong united country.

  • Parts of Italy were constantly invaded and/or occupied by foreign powers

  • In Northern Italy, for example, French, Germanic and Slavic linguistic and cultural influences can be seen

  • In Southern Italy, there is the vast influence of the Catholic Church.

  • The Papal States literally cut the country in half

  • Also, the church owned approx. 60% of the land in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

  • During the 19th Century, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was controlled by the Bourbons, the French Royal Family

  • Vast poverty in Southern Italy

The 3 wise men

The 3 Wise Men

The Story of Italian Unification (in Italian the “Risorgimento”)can be best understood through

the lives and accomplishments

of 3 men

The soul of italian unification

The Soul of Italian Unification

Giuseppe Mazzini



  • Mazzini was a famous Italian Nationalist Writer.

  • He believed that all Italians should be joined together and that Italy could be a great and powerful country.

  • He also believed that a strong Italian government could use liberal ideas to improve the conditions of the poor throughout the land.

  • Mazzini’s works inspired the revolutions of 1848 and he was a hero of the Nationalist movement.

Quotes from mazzini

Quotes from Mazzini

  • A Country is not a mere territory; the particular territory is only its foundation. The Country is the idea which rises upon that foundation; it is the sentiment of love, the sense of fellowship which binds together all the sons of that territory.

  • Slumber not in the tents of your fathers. The world is advancing.

  • So long as you are ready to die for humanity, the life of your country is immortal.

  • The theory of rights enables us to rise and overthrow obstacles, but not to found a strong and lasting accord between all the elements which compose the nation.

  • God has given you your country as cradle, and humanity as mother; you cannot rightly love your brethren of the cradle if you love not the common mother.

The sword of italian unification

The Sword of Italian Unification

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Garibaldi the early years

Garibaldi: The Early Years

  • Garibaldi was born in Nice, which was French, but given back to the Italians after the congress of Vienna

  • Garibaldi was, as a young man, passionate about building the Nation of Italy

  • He was enthralled by the works of Mazzini

  • He eventually joins “Young Italy,” a secret society dedicated to destroying Austrian rule in Northern Italy

  • He joins the Carbonari Revolutionary Association and takes part in a rebellion against the King of Piedmont in 1834

  • It fails and Garibaldi flees the country

  • He is sentenced to death in absentia

To south america

To South America

  • Eventually Garibaldi finds his way to Brazil

  • There he met his future wife, Anita, and they fought together alongside “Gaucho” rebels to separate from Brazil and form a new, democratic country

  • This is where Garibaldi developed his “look” . . . Red Shirt, Poncho and Sombrero . . . And his horse riding skills.

  • Garibaldi and Anita, then travel to Uruguay and took part in their civil war

  • He raised an Italian Legion and fought many victorious battles against numerically superior opponents

  • However, through it all, he never forgot his homeland and wished to someday return to liberate Italy

  • In all his battles, his soldiers wore the trademark “red shirts” and they carried with them a black flag with a volcano in the middle

  • Black representing mourning for Italy

  • The Volcano representing the dormant power of the Unified Italian people

  • In 1848, much of Italy revolts and Mazzini, the now skilled warrior, returns home

The unification of italy part 1


  • Garibaldi went to Milan and fought with their revolutionary government against Austrian Rule

  • However, after a major Austrian victory, the cause was lost

  • Garibaldi then went to Rome, where revolutionaries had declared a republic in the Papal States

  • Garibaldi fought several battles and defeated numerically superior French forces

  • However, the French sent a massive amount of reinforcements to defend the Pope

  • Garbaldi was forced to retreat

  • His wife died and he was forced to leave the country again

  • He travelled to the USA and lived in New York

  • There he worked in a candle factory and a merchant ship captain

Back to italy and the march of the 1000

Back to Italy and the March of the 1000

  • Garibaldi returned to Italy and aligned himself with King Victor Emmanuel of Piedmont in his war against Austria

  • He was impressed with this king and realized that a strong leader was needed to unify Italy

  • He was promoted to General and won many victories

  • The war was won and Garibaldi became a national hero

  • However, he would not be satisfied until all Italy was free

  • In 1860, during popular uprisings, he took 1000 of his Red Shirts and invaded the kingdom of Sicily

  • As, he marched through, local peasants and rebels joined

  • With just this small force, he managed to defeat the entire army of the Kingdom

  • He proclaimed himself dictator in the name of King Victor Emmanuel . . . He hoped to unify his new conquest under the leadership of a king that he trusted

The march on rome

The March on Rome

  • Garibaldi wanted to continue and took his Army north, into the Papal States

  • However, he was blocked from doing so by the Army of Piedmont

  • King Victor Emmanuel did not want to risk war with France

  • Victor Emmanuel himself travelled south to meet with Garibaldi

  • The two men met of a bridge to discuss the future of the country

  • Victor was desperate to stop here and receive the gift of southern Italy

  • Garibaldi was desperate to unify all Italians, get rid of the horrible influence of the catholic church in Italy and now was beginning to distrust Emmanuel

  • The result of this meeting . . . Next time!

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