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# Signal Analysis Processing Discrete -Time LTI Systems Lecture 26 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Department of Communication & Electronics Engineering Faculty of Engineering Philadelphia University. Signal Analysis & Processing Discrete -Time LTI Systems Lecture (26). Lecturer: Ibrahim Abu-Isbeih. h [ n ]. d [ n ]. LTI System. Figure 3.20. 3.6 Discrete-Time LTI Systems:.

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Faculty of Engineering

### Signal Analysis & ProcessingDiscrete -Time LTI SystemsLecture (26)

Lecturer: Ibrahim Abu-Isbeih

h[n]

d[n]

LTI

System

Figure 3.20

3.6 Discrete-Time LTI Systems:

In this section, we develop the fundamental input/output relationship for discrete-time, linear, time-invariant (LTI) systems.

It is useful to characterize an LTI system in terms of its impulse response.

The impulse response of an LTI system is defined as the output of the LTI system due to a unit impulse signal input applied at time t=0 as illustrated in Figure 3.20.

i.e., if x[n]=d [n] then y[n]=h[n].

Signal Analysis & Processing

y[n]

x[n]

LTI

System

Figure 3.21

The impulse response of the LTI system shown in Figure 3.20 is denoted by h[n], whereh[n] is the response tod[n].

Consider a discrete-time LTI system with input x[n] shown in Figure 3.21, if the impulse response of the LTI system is h[n] then the output of this LTI system is given by:

Signal Analysis & Processing

Hence, the impulse response of the LTI system h[n] is the only function needed to characterize the system completely with respect to its input and output.

The output of an LTI system with impulse response h[n] is then given by the convolution sum:

Utilizing the commutivity property of convolution, we can also write the above equation as:

Signal Analysis & Processing

The procedure of evaluating the convolution sum (the LTI system output) was discussed in session two.

For example, the output of a discrete-time LTI system with impulse response h[n]=u[n] to the input x[n]=3u[n-2] is given by:

Signal Analysis & Processing

x system output) was discussed in session two.[n]

h[n]

3

2

1

1

1

n

n

-1

3

0

2

1

-1

3

0

2

1

Example 3.6.1:Find the output of a discrete-time LTI system with impulse response h[n]=u[n]-u[n-2] to the input

Solution:The output of the system is given by:

To find the above convolution sum:

- Graph x[n] and h[n]:

*

Signal Analysis & Processing

x system output) was discussed in session two.[k]

h[k]

3

2

1

1

1

k

k

-1

3

0

2

1

-1

3

0

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1

• Replace n with kin x[n] and h[n]

• Graph h[n-k]

h[n-k]

1

1

1

k

n-1

n

n-2

1

0

Signal Analysis & Processing

x system output) was discussed in session two.[k]

3

2

k

-1

3

0

2

1

According to the convolution sumconvolution can be divided into the following cases:

• 1. For n< 0: The functions x[k] and h[n-k]

• do not overlap, then y[n]=0

h[n-k]

1

1

1

k

n-1

n

n-2

1

0

Signal Analysis & Processing

x system output) was discussed in session two.[k]

3

2

k

-1

3

0

2

1

• 2. For n =0:

h[n-k]

1

1

1

k

-2

1

-1

0

Signal Analysis & Processing

x system output) was discussed in session two.[k]

3

2

k

-1

3

0

2

1

• 3. For n =1:

h[n-k]

1

1

1

k

-1

1

0

Signal Analysis & Processing

x system output) was discussed in session two.[k]

3

2

k

-1

3

0

2

1

• 4. For n =2:

h[n-k]

1

1

1

k

0

2

1

Signal Analysis & Processing

x system output) was discussed in session two.[k]

3

2

k

-1

3

0

2

1

• 5. For n =3:

h[n-k]

1

1

1

k

0

1

2

3

Signal Analysis & Processing

x system output) was discussed in session two.[k]

3

2

k

-1

3

0

2

1

• 6. For n ≥ 4:

h[n-k]

1

1

1

k

0

1

n-1

n

n-2

2

Signal Analysis & Processing

Then the output of the system is : system output) was discussed in session two.

y[n]

5

5

3

2

n

-1

4

0

1

3

2

Signal Analysis & Processing

s system output) was discussed in session two.[n]

u[n]

LTI

System

Figure 3.22

Step-Response:

In this lecture we introduce the step-responseof discrete-time LTI systems.

The step-response of an LTI system with impulse response h[n] is defined as the output of the LTI system due to the unit step signal input as illustrated in Figure 3.22.

i.e., if x[n]=u[n] then y[n]=s[n]=u[n]*h[n].

Signal Analysis & Processing

h system output) was discussed in session two.[n]

5

5

5

5

………

2

2

2

2

n

0

1

2

4

-1

3

5

6

Example 3.6.2:

Find the step-response of an LTI system with impulse response h[n]=2u[n]+3u[n-4].

Signal Analysis & Processing

Solution: system output) was discussed in session two.

To find the step-response of the given system, let x[n]=u[n] then the step-response is:

Signal Analysis & Processing

h system output) was discussed in session two.[n]

3

1

n

4

-2

-1

3

0

2

1

-1

Example 3.6.3:Find the step-response of an LTI system with impulse response

Signal Analysis & Processing

Solution: system output) was discussed in session two.The step-response of the system is:

wherex[n]=u[n].

Using the convolution properties we have:

Signal Analysis & Processing