Zoology
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Zoology. Standard 2: Invertebrates. List 5 characteristics of members of the Kingdom Animalia. Characteristics of Animals. Eukaryotes Multicellularity Heterotrophy Sexual reproduction Mobility -No cell wall Diploidy Specialized tissues Blastula formation. Zoo Agenda 04/08.

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Zoology

Zoology

Standard 2: Invertebrates


Zoology

  • List 5 characteristics of members of the Kingdom Animalia.


Characteristics of animals

Characteristics of Animals

  • Eukaryotes

  • Multicellularity

  • Heterotrophy

  • Sexual reproduction

  • Mobility -No cell wall

  • Diploidy

  • Specialized tissues

  • Blastula formation


Zoo agenda 04 08

Zoo Agenda 04/08

  • Pre -Standard 2: Invertebrates

  • More Animal Characteristics

    • Graphic Organizer p.17

  • Work with It! pp.18-20


Eukaryotes

Eukaryotes

  • Cells with a nucleus

  • Membrane-bound organelles


Multicellarity

Multicellarity

  • More than one cell

  • Gives rise to different body plans

    • Asymmetrical

    • Radial

    • Bilateral

    • Clip


Asymmetrical

Asymmetrical

  • No fixed arrangement of body parts

  • Lack cephalization (no head!)

  • No symmetry exists


Radial symmetry

Radial Symmetry

  • How many ways can a pizza be cut into two equal parts?

  • Infinite number of ways as long as the cut goes through the center of the pizza


Bilateral symmetry

Bilateral Symmetry

  • How many ways can a chair be cut in half?

  • Only one way; left and right halves that mirror each other


Heterotrophy

I am a heterotroph, I can’t make these bananas!

Heterotrophy

  • Eat or consume other organisms

  • Clip


Mobility

Mobility

  • No cell wall allows for mobility of cells and organism


Diploidy

Diploidy

  • 2n

  • Two sets of chromosomes

  • One from each parent (sexual reproduction)


Sexual fertilization

Sexual Fertilization

  • Egg + Sperm = Embryo

  • External

    • Outside body, higher mortality, large # gametes (egg and sperm)

    • Example: Fish, Amphibians, Insects

  • Internal

    • Inside body, lower mortality, small # gametes

    • Examples: Reptiles, Birds, Mammals


Blastula formation

Blastula Formation

  • Development of the embryo

  • Produces primary tissue layers

    • Endoderm

    • Mesoderm

    • Ectoderm

    • Clip


Tissues

Tissues

  • Cells organized into specialized tissues

  • Clip


Zoology

Heterotrophy

Multicelluar

Diploidy

Blastula Formation

Mobility

Tissues


Animal concept map

Animal Concept Map

Mobitiy

Tissue

Sexual Reproduction

Primary Tissue Layers

Body Plan

External

Bilateral

Symmetry

Radial Symmetry


Work with it

Work with It!

Complete pp.18-20.


Warm up 04 09

Warm-up 04/09

  • What does Invertebrate mean?

  • List as many different types of Invertebrates as you can.

  • Circle the animal in your list you think is “The First” animal evolutionarily?


Invertebrates

Invertebrates

  • Invertebrates are animals that do not have a backbone.

  • Invertebrates are cold-blooded.

  • Eight Major Phylums


Invertebrates no backbone

INVERTEBRATES = No Backbone


Agenda 04 09

Agenda 04/09

Shape of Life :“Origins”

Notes


The shape of life

The Shape of Life

  • What was the FIRST animal?

  • How can we find this out and prove it?

  • The Shape of Life “Origins”

    • Read over questions

    • Answer questions while watching Origins.


Eight major phyla

Eight Major Phyla

  • Porifera: Sponges

  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral

  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Nemotoda: Roundworms

  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes

  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus

  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches

  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins


Phylum porifera sponges

Phylum Porifera: Sponges


Warm up 04 10

Warm-up 04/10

  • What are the 3 types of symmetry?

  • What type of symmetry to sponges have?

  • Asymmetry

  • Bilateral

  • Radial


Agenda 04 10

Agenda 04/10

  • Finish The Shape of Life “Origins”

  • Porifera Notes

  • Phylum Cnidaria

    • Cnidarians Spelling bee

    • Notes


Zoology

  • Phylum Porifera:Sponges

  • Multicellular Eukaryotes

  • Heterotrophic, filter feeders

  • No cell wall, but sessile

  • Have specialized cells

  • Mostly marine, but include some freshwater inhabitants; usually found attached to the substrate in shallow or deep water.


Sponge specialized cells

Sponge Specialized Cells

  • Amoebocytes

  • Spicules

  • Choanocytes


Zoology

  • Body layers

  • Outer layer of flattened cells

  • Inner lining containing flagellated cells - draw water through pores, also filter food particles from water

  • Middle layer is a gelatinous material and contains spicules


Zoology

  • Sponge Reproduction

  • Most are hermaphroditic

  • Sperm leaves a sponge via osculum, and enters by the currents generated from the choanocytes.

  • Fertilized eggs develop into free-swimming larvae

  • Sponges can reproduce asexually by fragmentation

  • Many of the freshwater sponges can produce asexually


Zoology

  • Sponge Skeleton

  • Mesohyl- middle layer has a skeleton composed of tiny pointed structures made of silica or calcium carbonate called spicules.

  • Some sponges have skeletons of spongin fibers made of collagenous material; found in many of the commercial sponges


Zoology

Sponge Taxonomy

  • Class Calcarea

  • Calcareous Sponges

  • Sponges with calcium carbonate spicules only.

  • Spicules are straight or have 3-4 rays

  • These sponges diversity is greatest in the tropics, predominantly in shallow waters


Zoology

  • Class Hexactinellida

  • Glass Sponges

  • Glass sponges

  • Characterized by siliceous (silica) spicules consisting of six rays intersecting at right angles


Zoology

  • Class Demospongiae

  • Demosponges

  • More than 90 % of the 5,000 known living sponge species are demosponges.

  • Skeletons are spongin fibers and/or siliceous spicules

  • Filter Feeders

Yellow sponge growing on a wall

on a Caribbean reef.


Porifera links

Porifera Links

  • http://www.occc.edu/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/Zoology_Tutorials.htm

  • www.biology.iastate.edu/.../%20Porifindx.htm

  • http://www.bumblebee.org/invertebrates/Porifera.htm

  • www.discoverlife.org/nh/tx/Porifera/

  • http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porifera.html


If time

If time……

  • Intro to Phylum Cnidaria

    • Cnidarians Spelling bee

    • Slides

    • Notes

    • Classification Activity


Eight major phyla1

Eight Major Phyla

  • Porifera: Sponges

  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral

  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Nemotoda: Roundworms

  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes

  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus

  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches

  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins


Cnidarians jellyfish hydra anemone coral

Cnidarians: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral


Characteristics of cnidarians

Characteristics of Cnidarians

  • Radial symmetry

  • 2 Tissue Layers

    • Inner (Gastrodermis) and Outer (Ectodermis)

  • Nematocysts- located in cells called Cnidocytes, used for defense or feeding

  • Two Life forms: medusa and polyp


Bilateral vs radial symmetry

Bilateral vs Radial Symmetry


2 tissue layers

2 Tissue Layers

  • Gastrodermis(endoderm) Inner layer

  • Ectoderm- Outer layer

  • Mesoglea- Middle material


Two life forms

Two Life Forms


Zoo warm up 04 11

Zoo Warm-up 04/11

  • What are 3 key characteristics of the Phylum Porifera?

    • Asymmetrical

    • Filter Feeders

    • Specialized Cells

    • Hermaphrodites

    • Classified according to spicule composition


Agenda 04 11

Agenda 04/11

  • Phylum Cnidaria

    • Finish Notes

    • Classification Activity

  • Shape of Life “On the Move”


Eight major phyla2

Eight Major Phyla

  • Porifera: Sponges

  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral

  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Nemotoda: Roundworms

  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes

  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus

  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches

  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins


Life functions of cnidarians

Life Functions of Cnidarians

  • Movement and Response

    • Nerve Cells- nerve net surrounds whole body

    • Sensory Cells- used to sense environment

    • Muscle-like cells- longitudinal and circular aid in movement


Nematocysts

Nematocysts


Nematocysts1

Nematocysts


Life functions of cnidarians1

Life Functions of Cnidarians

  • Reproduction/life cycle

    • Can be sexual or asexual (mostly sexual)

    • Alternate generations between medusa and polyp form

    • Polyp develops through budding or from a free-swimming larva

    • Medusa formed by budding from a polyp body wall


Life functions of cnidarians2

Life Functions of Cnidarians

  • Feeding

    • Use cnidocytes to stun or kill prey

    • Can contract tentacles to bring to mouth

    • Digestion occurs in gastrovascular cavity


Classes of cnidarians you try

Classes of Cnidarians YOU TRY!

  • Class Hydrozoa- Hydra

  • Class Scyphozoa-Jellyfish

  • Class Cubozoa- Box Jelly

  • Class Anthozoa- Anemone or Coral


Class hydrozoa

Class Hydrozoa

  • Mostly marine

  • This is the only class with freshwater members!

  • Alternate generations

  • Mostly colonial polyps

  • Only have cnidocytes in epidermis


Zoology

Gastrozooid

Gonozooid


Hydra

Hydra

  • Freshwater

  • Polyp only, no medusa

  • Young “buds” from parent until ready to survive on its own, then it drops off


Types of locomotion in hydra

Types of Locomotion in Hydra


Physalia

Physalia

  • Portuguese Man-of-War

  • Colonial siphonophore

  • Does not swim, float moved by water and wind

  • Long tentacles contain cnidocytes and kill prey.


Class scyphozoa

Class Scyphozoa

  • “True Jellyfish” – polyp form reduced or absent

  • All marine

  • Cnidocytes in gastrodermis and epidermis

  • Gametes form in gastrodermis


Stinging nettle mastigias

Stinging nettle, Mastigias


Aurelia

Aurelia


Life cycle of aurelia

Life Cycle of Aurelia


Class cubozoa

Class Cubozoa

  • Medusa is cuboidal

  • Tentacles hang from corners

  • Polyps reduced or absent

  • Ex. Sea wasp


Class anthozoa

Class Anthozoa

  • No medusae, polyp only

  • Mouth has a pharynx

  • Sexual and asexual reproduction


Sea anemones

Sea Anemones


Corals

Corals


Links

Links

  • http://www.oceanicresearch.org/education/wonders/cnidarian.html

  • Cnidarians Spelling bee


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