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Zoology. Standard 2: Invertebrates. List 5 characteristics of members of the Kingdom Animalia. Characteristics of Animals. Eukaryotes Multicellularity Heterotrophy Sexual reproduction Mobility -No cell wall Diploidy Specialized tissues Blastula formation. Zoo Agenda 04/08.

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Zoology

Standard 2: Invertebrates


  • List 5 characteristics of members of the Kingdom Animalia.


Characteristics of Animals

  • Eukaryotes

  • Multicellularity

  • Heterotrophy

  • Sexual reproduction

  • Mobility -No cell wall

  • Diploidy

  • Specialized tissues

  • Blastula formation


Zoo Agenda 04/08

  • Pre -Standard 2: Invertebrates

  • More Animal Characteristics

    • Graphic Organizer p.17

  • Work with It! pp.18-20


Eukaryotes

  • Cells with a nucleus

  • Membrane-bound organelles


Multicellarity

  • More than one cell

  • Gives rise to different body plans

    • Asymmetrical

    • Radial

    • Bilateral

    • Clip


Asymmetrical

  • No fixed arrangement of body parts

  • Lack cephalization (no head!)

  • No symmetry exists


Radial Symmetry

  • How many ways can a pizza be cut into two equal parts?

  • Infinite number of ways as long as the cut goes through the center of the pizza


Bilateral Symmetry

  • How many ways can a chair be cut in half?

  • Only one way; left and right halves that mirror each other


I am a heterotroph, I can’t make these bananas!

Heterotrophy

  • Eat or consume other organisms

  • Clip


Mobility

  • No cell wall allows for mobility of cells and organism


Diploidy

  • 2n

  • Two sets of chromosomes

  • One from each parent (sexual reproduction)


Sexual Fertilization

  • Egg + Sperm = Embryo

  • External

    • Outside body, higher mortality, large # gametes (egg and sperm)

    • Example: Fish, Amphibians, Insects

  • Internal

    • Inside body, lower mortality, small # gametes

    • Examples: Reptiles, Birds, Mammals


Blastula Formation

  • Development of the embryo

  • Produces primary tissue layers

    • Endoderm

    • Mesoderm

    • Ectoderm

    • Clip


Tissues

  • Cells organized into specialized tissues

  • Clip


Heterotrophy

Multicelluar

Diploidy

Blastula Formation

Mobility

Tissues


Animal Concept Map

Mobitiy

Tissue

Sexual Reproduction

Primary Tissue Layers

Body Plan

External

Bilateral

Symmetry

Radial Symmetry


Work with It!

Complete pp.18-20.


Warm-up 04/09

  • What does Invertebrate mean?

  • List as many different types of Invertebrates as you can.

  • Circle the animal in your list you think is “The First” animal evolutionarily?


Invertebrates

  • Invertebrates are animals that do not have a backbone.

  • Invertebrates are cold-blooded.

  • Eight Major Phylums


INVERTEBRATES = No Backbone


Agenda 04/09

Shape of Life :“Origins”

Notes


The Shape of Life

  • What was the FIRST animal?

  • How can we find this out and prove it?

  • The Shape of Life “Origins”

    • Read over questions

    • Answer questions while watching Origins.


Eight Major Phyla

  • Porifera: Sponges

  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral

  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Nemotoda: Roundworms

  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes

  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus

  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches

  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins


Phylum Porifera: Sponges


Warm-up 04/10

  • What are the 3 types of symmetry?

  • What type of symmetry to sponges have?

  • Asymmetry

  • Bilateral

  • Radial


Agenda 04/10

  • Finish The Shape of Life “Origins”

  • Porifera Notes

  • Phylum Cnidaria

    • Cnidarians Spelling bee

    • Notes


  • Phylum Porifera:Sponges

  • Multicellular Eukaryotes

  • Heterotrophic, filter feeders

  • No cell wall, but sessile

  • Have specialized cells

  • Mostly marine, but include some freshwater inhabitants; usually found attached to the substrate in shallow or deep water.


Sponge Specialized Cells

  • Amoebocytes

  • Spicules

  • Choanocytes


  • Body layers

  • Outer layer of flattened cells

  • Inner lining containing flagellated cells - draw water through pores, also filter food particles from water

  • Middle layer is a gelatinous material and contains spicules


  • Sponge Reproduction

  • Most are hermaphroditic

  • Sperm leaves a sponge via osculum, and enters by the currents generated from the choanocytes.

  • Fertilized eggs develop into free-swimming larvae

  • Sponges can reproduce asexually by fragmentation

  • Many of the freshwater sponges can produce asexually


  • Sponge Skeleton

  • Mesohyl- middle layer has a skeleton composed of tiny pointed structures made of silica or calcium carbonate called spicules.

  • Some sponges have skeletons of spongin fibers made of collagenous material; found in many of the commercial sponges


Sponge Taxonomy

  • Class Calcarea

  • Calcareous Sponges

  • Sponges with calcium carbonate spicules only.

  • Spicules are straight or have 3-4 rays

  • These sponges diversity is greatest in the tropics, predominantly in shallow waters


  • Class Hexactinellida

  • Glass Sponges

  • Glass sponges

  • Characterized by siliceous (silica) spicules consisting of six rays intersecting at right angles


  • Class Demospongiae

  • Demosponges

  • More than 90 % of the 5,000 known living sponge species are demosponges.

  • Skeletons are spongin fibers and/or siliceous spicules

  • Filter Feeders

Yellow sponge growing on a wall

on a Caribbean reef.


Porifera Links

  • http://www.occc.edu/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/Zoology_Tutorials.htm

  • www.biology.iastate.edu/.../%20Porifindx.htm

  • http://www.bumblebee.org/invertebrates/Porifera.htm

  • www.discoverlife.org/nh/tx/Porifera/

  • http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porifera.html


If time……

  • Intro to Phylum Cnidaria

    • Cnidarians Spelling bee

    • Slides

    • Notes

    • Classification Activity


Eight Major Phyla

  • Porifera: Sponges

  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral

  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Nemotoda: Roundworms

  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes

  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus

  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches

  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins


Cnidarians: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral


Characteristics of Cnidarians

  • Radial symmetry

  • 2 Tissue Layers

    • Inner (Gastrodermis) and Outer (Ectodermis)

  • Nematocysts- located in cells called Cnidocytes, used for defense or feeding

  • Two Life forms: medusa and polyp


Bilateral vs Radial Symmetry


2 Tissue Layers

  • Gastrodermis(endoderm) Inner layer

  • Ectoderm- Outer layer

  • Mesoglea- Middle material


Two Life Forms


Zoo Warm-up 04/11

  • What are 3 key characteristics of the Phylum Porifera?

    • Asymmetrical

    • Filter Feeders

    • Specialized Cells

    • Hermaphrodites

    • Classified according to spicule composition


Agenda 04/11

  • Phylum Cnidaria

    • Finish Notes

    • Classification Activity

  • Shape of Life “On the Move”


Eight Major Phyla

  • Porifera: Sponges

  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral

  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Nemotoda: Roundworms

  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes

  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus

  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches

  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins


Life Functions of Cnidarians

  • Movement and Response

    • Nerve Cells- nerve net surrounds whole body

    • Sensory Cells- used to sense environment

    • Muscle-like cells- longitudinal and circular aid in movement


Nematocysts


Nematocysts


Life Functions of Cnidarians

  • Reproduction/life cycle

    • Can be sexual or asexual (mostly sexual)

    • Alternate generations between medusa and polyp form

    • Polyp develops through budding or from a free-swimming larva

    • Medusa formed by budding from a polyp body wall


Life Functions of Cnidarians

  • Feeding

    • Use cnidocytes to stun or kill prey

    • Can contract tentacles to bring to mouth

    • Digestion occurs in gastrovascular cavity


Classes of Cnidarians YOU TRY!

  • Class Hydrozoa- Hydra

  • Class Scyphozoa-Jellyfish

  • Class Cubozoa- Box Jelly

  • Class Anthozoa- Anemone or Coral


Class Hydrozoa

  • Mostly marine

  • This is the only class with freshwater members!

  • Alternate generations

  • Mostly colonial polyps

  • Only have cnidocytes in epidermis


Gastrozooid

Gonozooid


Hydra

  • Freshwater

  • Polyp only, no medusa

  • Young “buds” from parent until ready to survive on its own, then it drops off


Types of Locomotion in Hydra


Physalia

  • Portuguese Man-of-War

  • Colonial siphonophore

  • Does not swim, float moved by water and wind

  • Long tentacles contain cnidocytes and kill prey.


Class Scyphozoa

  • “True Jellyfish” – polyp form reduced or absent

  • All marine

  • Cnidocytes in gastrodermis and epidermis

  • Gametes form in gastrodermis


Stinging nettle, Mastigias


Aurelia


Life Cycle of Aurelia


Class Cubozoa

  • Medusa is cuboidal

  • Tentacles hang from corners

  • Polyps reduced or absent

  • Ex. Sea wasp


Class Anthozoa

  • No medusae, polyp only

  • Mouth has a pharynx

  • Sexual and asexual reproduction


Sea Anemones


Corals


Links

  • http://www.oceanicresearch.org/education/wonders/cnidarian.html

  • Cnidarians Spelling bee


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