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Zoology. Standard 2: Invertebrates. List 5 characteristics of members of the Kingdom Animalia. Characteristics of Animals. Eukaryotes Multicellularity Heterotrophy Sexual reproduction Mobility -No cell wall Diploidy Specialized tissues Blastula formation. Zoo Agenda 04/08.

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Zoology

Zoology

Standard 2: Invertebrates



Characteristics of animals
Characteristics of Animals

  • Eukaryotes

  • Multicellularity

  • Heterotrophy

  • Sexual reproduction

  • Mobility -No cell wall

  • Diploidy

  • Specialized tissues

  • Blastula formation


Zoo agenda 04 08
Zoo Agenda 04/08

  • Pre -Standard 2: Invertebrates

  • More Animal Characteristics

    • Graphic Organizer p.17

  • Work with It! pp.18-20


Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes

  • Cells with a nucleus

  • Membrane-bound organelles


Multicellarity
Multicellarity

  • More than one cell

  • Gives rise to different body plans

    • Asymmetrical

    • Radial

    • Bilateral

    • Clip


Asymmetrical
Asymmetrical

  • No fixed arrangement of body parts

  • Lack cephalization (no head!)

  • No symmetry exists


Radial symmetry
Radial Symmetry

  • How many ways can a pizza be cut into two equal parts?

  • Infinite number of ways as long as the cut goes through the center of the pizza


Bilateral symmetry
Bilateral Symmetry

  • How many ways can a chair be cut in half?

  • Only one way; left and right halves that mirror each other


Heterotrophy

I am a heterotroph, I can’t make these bananas!

Heterotrophy

  • Eat or consume other organisms

  • Clip


Mobility
Mobility

  • No cell wall allows for mobility of cells and organism


Diploidy
Diploidy

  • 2n

  • Two sets of chromosomes

  • One from each parent (sexual reproduction)


Sexual fertilization
Sexual Fertilization

  • Egg + Sperm = Embryo

  • External

    • Outside body, higher mortality, large # gametes (egg and sperm)

    • Example: Fish, Amphibians, Insects

  • Internal

    • Inside body, lower mortality, small # gametes

    • Examples: Reptiles, Birds, Mammals


Blastula formation
Blastula Formation

  • Development of the embryo

  • Produces primary tissue layers

    • Endoderm

    • Mesoderm

    • Ectoderm

    • Clip


Tissues
Tissues

  • Cells organized into specialized tissues

  • Clip


Heterotrophy

Multicelluar

Diploidy

Blastula Formation

Mobility

Tissues


Animal concept map
Animal Concept Map

Mobitiy

Tissue

Sexual Reproduction

Primary Tissue Layers

Body Plan

External

Bilateral

Symmetry

Radial Symmetry


Work with it
Work with It!

Complete pp.18-20.


Warm up 04 09
Warm-up 04/09

  • What does Invertebrate mean?

  • List as many different types of Invertebrates as you can.

  • Circle the animal in your list you think is “The First” animal evolutionarily?


Invertebrates
Invertebrates

  • Invertebrates are animals that do not have a backbone.

  • Invertebrates are cold-blooded.

  • Eight Major Phylums



Agenda 04 09
Agenda 04/09

Shape of Life :“Origins”

Notes


The shape of life
The Shape of Life

  • What was the FIRST animal?

  • How can we find this out and prove it?

  • The Shape of Life “Origins”

    • Read over questions

    • Answer questions while watching Origins.


Eight major phyla
Eight Major Phyla

  • Porifera: Sponges

  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral

  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Nemotoda: Roundworms

  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes

  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus

  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches

  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins



Warm up 04 10
Warm-up 04/10

  • What are the 3 types of symmetry?

  • What type of symmetry to sponges have?

  • Asymmetry

  • Bilateral

  • Radial


Agenda 04 10
Agenda 04/10

  • Finish The Shape of Life “Origins”

  • Porifera Notes

  • Phylum Cnidaria

    • Cnidarians Spelling bee

    • Notes


  • Phylum Porifera:Sponges

  • Multicellular Eukaryotes

  • Heterotrophic, filter feeders

  • No cell wall, but sessile

  • Have specialized cells

  • Mostly marine, but include some freshwater inhabitants; usually found attached to the substrate in shallow or deep water.


Sponge specialized cells
Sponge Specialized Cells

  • Amoebocytes

  • Spicules

  • Choanocytes


  • Body layers

  • Outer layer of flattened cells

  • Inner lining containing flagellated cells - draw water through pores, also filter food particles from water

  • Middle layer is a gelatinous material and contains spicules


  • Sponge Reproduction

  • Most are hermaphroditic

  • Sperm leaves a sponge via osculum, and enters by the currents generated from the choanocytes.

  • Fertilized eggs develop into free-swimming larvae

  • Sponges can reproduce asexually by fragmentation

  • Many of the freshwater sponges can produce asexually


  • Sponge Skeleton

  • Mesohyl- middle layer has a skeleton composed of tiny pointed structures made of silica or calcium carbonate called spicules.

  • Some sponges have skeletons of spongin fibers made of collagenous material; found in many of the commercial sponges


Sponge Taxonomy

  • Class Calcarea

  • Calcareous Sponges

  • Sponges with calcium carbonate spicules only.

  • Spicules are straight or have 3-4 rays

  • These sponges diversity is greatest in the tropics, predominantly in shallow waters


  • Class Hexactinellida

  • Glass Sponges

  • Glass sponges

  • Characterized by siliceous (silica) spicules consisting of six rays intersecting at right angles


  • Class Demospongiae

  • Demosponges

  • More than 90 % of the 5,000 known living sponge species are demosponges.

  • Skeletons are spongin fibers and/or siliceous spicules

  • Filter Feeders

Yellow sponge growing on a wall

on a Caribbean reef.


Porifera links
Porifera Links

  • http://www.occc.edu/biologylabs/Documents/Zoology/Zoology_Tutorials.htm

  • www.biology.iastate.edu/.../%20Porifindx.htm

  • http://www.bumblebee.org/invertebrates/Porifera.htm

  • www.discoverlife.org/nh/tx/Porifera/

  • http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Porifera.html


If time
If time……

  • Intro to Phylum Cnidaria

    • Cnidarians Spelling bee

    • Slides

    • Notes

    • Classification Activity


Eight major phyla1
Eight Major Phyla

  • Porifera: Sponges

  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral

  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Nemotoda: Roundworms

  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes

  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus

  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches

  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins


Cnidarians jellyfish hydra anemone coral
Cnidarians: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral


Characteristics of cnidarians
Characteristics of Cnidarians

  • Radial symmetry

  • 2 Tissue Layers

    • Inner (Gastrodermis) and Outer (Ectodermis)

  • Nematocysts- located in cells called Cnidocytes, used for defense or feeding

  • Two Life forms: medusa and polyp



2 tissue layers
2 Tissue Layers

  • Gastrodermis(endoderm) Inner layer

  • Ectoderm- Outer layer

  • Mesoglea- Middle material



Zoo warm up 04 11
Zoo Warm-up 04/11

  • What are 3 key characteristics of the Phylum Porifera?

    • Asymmetrical

    • Filter Feeders

    • Specialized Cells

    • Hermaphrodites

    • Classified according to spicule composition


Agenda 04 11
Agenda 04/11

  • Phylum Cnidaria

    • Finish Notes

    • Classification Activity

  • Shape of Life “On the Move”


Eight major phyla2
Eight Major Phyla

  • Porifera: Sponges

  • Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Hydra, Anemone, Coral

  • Platyhelminthes: Flatworms

  • Nemotoda: Roundworms

  • Arthropoda: Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Millipedes, Centepedes

  • Mollusca: Clams, snails, Slugs, Nautilus, Octopus

  • Annelida:Segmented worms, leeches

  • Echinodermata: Sea Stars, Sea Urchins


Life functions of cnidarians
Life Functions of Cnidarians

  • Movement and Response

    • Nerve Cells- nerve net surrounds whole body

    • Sensory Cells- used to sense environment

    • Muscle-like cells- longitudinal and circular aid in movement




Life functions of cnidarians1
Life Functions of Cnidarians

  • Reproduction/life cycle

    • Can be sexual or asexual (mostly sexual)

    • Alternate generations between medusa and polyp form

    • Polyp develops through budding or from a free-swimming larva

    • Medusa formed by budding from a polyp body wall


Life functions of cnidarians2
Life Functions of Cnidarians

  • Feeding

    • Use cnidocytes to stun or kill prey

    • Can contract tentacles to bring to mouth

    • Digestion occurs in gastrovascular cavity


Classes of cnidarians you try
Classes of Cnidarians YOU TRY!

  • Class Hydrozoa- Hydra

  • Class Scyphozoa-Jellyfish

  • Class Cubozoa- Box Jelly

  • Class Anthozoa- Anemone or Coral


Class hydrozoa
Class Hydrozoa

  • Mostly marine

  • This is the only class with freshwater members!

  • Alternate generations

  • Mostly colonial polyps

  • Only have cnidocytes in epidermis


Gastrozooid

Gonozooid


Hydra
Hydra

  • Freshwater

  • Polyp only, no medusa

  • Young “buds” from parent until ready to survive on its own, then it drops off



Physalia
Physalia

  • Portuguese Man-of-War

  • Colonial siphonophore

  • Does not swim, float moved by water and wind

  • Long tentacles contain cnidocytes and kill prey.


Class scyphozoa
Class Scyphozoa

  • “True Jellyfish” – polyp form reduced or absent

  • All marine

  • Cnidocytes in gastrodermis and epidermis

  • Gametes form in gastrodermis





Class cubozoa
Class Cubozoa

  • Medusa is cuboidal

  • Tentacles hang from corners

  • Polyps reduced or absent

  • Ex. Sea wasp


Class anthozoa
Class Anthozoa

  • No medusae, polyp only

  • Mouth has a pharynx

  • Sexual and asexual reproduction




Links
Links

  • http://www.oceanicresearch.org/education/wonders/cnidarian.html

  • Cnidarians Spelling bee


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