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Welcome it is a great day to learn about the Brain. What does the Brain do?. Jot down EVERYTHING your brain does Okay list about 10 things. We are going to start small and go big. Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Nervous System. Nervous System.

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What does the brain do
What does the Brain do?

  • Jot down EVERYTHING your brain does

  • Okay list about 10 things



Neurons the building blocks of the nervous system

Neurons: The Building Blocks of the Nervous System


Nervous system
Nervous System

  • The electrochemical communication system of the body

  • Sends messages from the brain to the body for movement

  • Brings information to the brain from the senses


Neuron
Neuron

  • The basic building block of the nervous system -- a nerve cell

  • Neurons perform three basic tasks

    • Receive information

    • Carry the information

    • Pass the information on to the next neuron


Types of Neurons

Sensory

Motor

Interneuron's


Sensory neurons
Sensory Neurons

  • INPUT Fromsensory organs to the brain and spinal cord

Brain

Drawing shows a somatic neuron

Sensory

Neuron

Spinal

Cord


Motor neurons

Brain

Sensory

Neuron

Spinal

Cord

Motor

Neuron

Motor Neurons

  • OUTPUTFrom the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands


Interneuron s

Brain

Sensory

Neuron

Spinal

Cord

Motor

Neuron

Interneuron's

  • Interneurons carry information between other neurons only found in the brain and spinal cord



What are the primary parts of a typical neuron
What are the primary parts of a typical neuron?

  • Nervous system

  • Neurons

  • Dendrites

  • Soma

  • Axon

  • Terminal branches of Axon

  • Myelin Sheath




  • A. Dendrites

    • Thin, branching fibers lined with receptors at which the dendrite receives information from other neurons.



  • B. Cell Body/Soma

    • Contains the nucleus and other parts of the cell needed to sustain life



  • C. Axon

    • Carries the message across the neuron



  • D. Myelin Sheath

    • An insulating, fatty covering around the axon that speeds neural transmissions. Axons that are myelinated appear white. Known as “white matter.”





Time to move
Time to Move

  • Locate the person furthest from you

  • Go to that person

  • Introduce yourself


Pick an a and d
Pick an A and D

A = Axon

D= Dendrite

With your partner explain the relationship between neurons





Neural communication the neural impulse

Neural Communication: The Neural Impulse


Action potential
Action Potential

  • A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of the neuron.

  • A neural impulse

  • Considered an “on” condition of the neuron


Refractory period
Refractory Period

  • The “recharging phase” when a neuron, after firing, cannot generate another action potential

  • Once the refractory period is complete the neuron can fire again


Resting potential
Resting Potential

  • The state of a neuron when it is at rest and capable of generating an action potential

  • The neuron is set and ready to fire


Neuron firing like a toilet
Neuron firing like a Toilet

  • Like a Neuron, a toilet has an action potential. When you flush, an “impulse” is sent down the sewer pipe


Neuron firing like a toilet1
Neuron firing like a Toilet

2. Like a neuron, a toilet has a refractory period. There is a short delay after flushing when the toilet cannot be flushed again because the tank is being refilled


Neuron firing like a toilet2
Neuron firing like a Toilet

  • Like a Neuron, a toilet has a resting potential. The toilet is “charged” when there is water in the tank and it is capable of being flushed again

  • Like a Neuron, a toilet operates on the all-or-none principle – it always flushes with the same intensity, no matter how much force you apply to the handle


All or none principle
All-or-None Principle

  • The principle that if a neuron fires it will always fire at the same intensity

  • All action potentials are of the same strength.

  • A neuron does NOT fire at 30%, 45% or 90% but at 100% each time it fires.


Communication between neurons

Communication Between Neurons

Module 7: Neural and Hormonal Systems


  • Synapse

    • The space between the terminal buttons on one neuron and dendrites of the next neuron


  • Neurotransmitters

    • Chemicals contained in the terminal buttons that enable neurons to communicate. Neurotransmitters fit into receptor sites on the dendrites of neurons like a key fits into a lock.



Neurotransmitters1
Neurotransmitters

  • A chemical messenger that travels across the synapse from one neuron to the next

  • Can influence whether the second neuron will generate an action potential or not


Excitatory effect
Excitatory Effect

  • A neurotransmitter effect that makes it more likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential (impulse)

  • The second neuron is more likely to fire.


Inhibitory effect
Inhibitory Effect

  • A neurotransmitter effect that makes it less likely that the receiving neuron will generate an action potential (impulse)

  • The second neuron is less likely to fire.



Acetylcholine ach
Acetylcholine (Ach)

  • Found in neuromuscular junctions

  • Involved in muscle movements

  • Involved in learning and memory


Disruption of acetylcholine functioning
Disruption of Acetylcholine Functioning

  • Curare — blocks ACh receptors

    • paralysis results

  • Nerve gases and Black Widow spider venom — too much ACh leads to severe muscle spasms and possible death


Disruptions in ach functioning
Disruptions in ACh Functioning

  • Cigarettes — nicotine works on ACh receptors

    • can artificially stimulate skeletal muscles, leading to slight trembling movements


Alzheimer s disease
Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Deterioration of memory, reasoning, and language skills

  • Symptoms may be due to loss of ACh neurons


Dopamine
Dopamine

  • Involved in movement, attention, and learning

  • Reward and motivation – drugs can impair this greatly 

  • Dopamine imbalance also involved in schizophrenia

  • Loss of dopamine-producing neurons is cause of Parkinson’s disease


Parkinson s disease
Parkinson’s Disease

  • Results from loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra

  • Symptoms include

    • difficulty starting and stopping voluntary movements

    • tremors at rest

    • stooped posture

    • rigidity

    • poor balance


Serotonin
Serotonin

  • Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

  • Involved in depression

    • Prozac works by keeping serotonin in the synapse longer, giving it more time to exert an effect


Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine

  • Arousal

  • “Fight or flight” response

  • Works with the sympathetic nervous system


GBA

  • Muscular movement; inhibition of brain activity

  • Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia

  • Anxiety disorders


GABA

  • Huntington’s disease involves loss of neurons in striatum that utilize GABA

    • Symptoms:

      • jerky involuntary movements

      • mental deterioration


Glutamate

  • Involved in memory

  • Oversupply can over stimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures


Endorphins
Endorphins

  • Natural opiates that are released in response to pain and vigorous exercise


Epinephrine
Epinephrine

  • Adrenaline Burst of Energy (small amounts in brain)




Neural communication the neural chain

Neural Communication: The Neural Chain

Module 7: Neural and Hormonal Systems


Receptor cells
Receptor Cells

  • Specialized cells in the sensory systems of the body that can turn other kinds of energy into action potentials that the nervous system can process

  • Receptor cells in the eye turn light into a neural impulse the brain understands.


Sensory nerves
Sensory Nerves

  • Nerves that carry information to the central nervous system

  • Connect the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord


Interneuron s1
Interneuron's

  • Nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord responsible for processing information related to sensory input and motor output


Motor nerves
Motor Nerves

  • Nerves that carry information from the central nervous system

  • Carries messages from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of your body








  • Reflexes is processed by the brain, sent back down the spinal cord, and then back to the body with behavior instructions. The exception to this general pathway is are controlled by the spinal cord without any conscious effort on behalf of the brain. Reflexes serve as primitive responses that protect our bodies from danger and help us adjust to our surroundings.


Reflex
Reflex is processed by the brain, sent back down the spinal cord, and then back to the body with behavior instructions. The exception to this general pathway is

We cough, for example, when an irritant enters our windpipe and we need to expel it through our mouth. We sneeze when we need to clear our nasal air passages of irritants and allergens. We blink when danger threatens the sensitive tissues of the eye and when we need to moisten and clean the cornea. (This reflex occurs 900 times an hour!) We yawn when nerves in the brain stem find there's too much carbon dioxide in the blood.


Reflex1
Reflex is processed by the brain, sent back down the spinal cord, and then back to the body with behavior instructions. The exception to this general pathway is

Spinal Cord


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