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Section 5.1 Explain why standards are necessary for networking PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Section 5.1 Explain why standards are necessary for networking Explain how an Ethernet network functions List Ethernet classifications Section 5.2 Explain how a token-passing network functions List wireless network classifications Explain how wireless transmissions are sent.

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Section 5.1 Explain why standards are necessary for networking

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Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

  • Section 5.1

    • Explain why standards are necessary for networking

    • Explain how an Ethernet network functions

    • List Ethernet classifications

  • Section 5.2

    • Explain how a token-passing network functions

    • List wireless network classifications

    • Explain how wireless transmissions are sent


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

  • Section 5.3

    • Map TCP/IP protocols to the OSI model

    • Define TCP and IP

    • Explain IP addressing

  • Section 5.4

    • Describe the AppleTalk protocols

    • Explain the protocols NetBIOS and NetBEUI

    • Demonstrate knowledge of the NetWare protocols


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

Guide to Reading

Main Ideas

Manufacturers need standards so their devices can communicate with each other. The IEEE 802.x standards define what happens at the Physical and Data Link Layers. 802.3 standards are for Ethernet networks. Ethernet networks use a contentious means of accessing the network called CSMA/CD.

Key Terms

Logical Link Control (LLC)

Ethernet

contention

frame

device driver


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

IEEE 802.x

In the 1970s, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) established Project 802. It defined network standards for the physical components of a network.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

IEEE 802.x

  • Project 802 standards fit into the OSI reference model with two differences:

  • 802 is limited to the Physical and Data Link Layers of the OSI model.

  • 802 divides the Data Link Layer into two sublayers

    • Logical Link Control (LLC)

    • Media Access Control (MAC)

Logical Link Control (LLC) A sublayer of the Data Link Layer that is responsible for establishing and terminating links to other computers and sequencing and acknowledging frames and controlling frame traffic. (p. 136)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

IEEE 802.x

  • The IEEE 802 committee defines the specifications for LAN architectures, including:

  • Ethernet

  • Token bus

  • Wireless personal area networks


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

IEEE 802.3: Ethernet Standard

Ethernetcould be considered the parent of LAN technology.

An earlier network, named ALOHA, was the first to use CSMA/CD as its means of controlling network access and contention.

Ethernet A LAN architecture that uses a bus topology and relies on CSMA/CD to regulate traffic on the main communication line. It uses a bus topology and is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard. (p. 137)

contention The competition among stations on a network for the opportunity to use a communication line or network resource. (p. 137)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

IEEE 802.3

  • Many LANs rely on CSMA/CD to:

  • Gain access to the

  • network when they

  • have packets to

  • transmit.

  • Ensure that two

  • nodes do not try to

  • transmit at the same

  • time.

  • A collision occurs if

  • two computers put

  • data on the cable

  • at the same time.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

IEEE 802.3

One drawback of Ethernet networks is the limited number of nodes a network can support. The 5-4-3 rule was created to help maintain network efficiency. It specifies that there can be no more than 5 cable segments, 4 repeaters, and 3 populated segments that can exist in any collision domain.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

IEEE 802.3

  • Ethernet networks vary in topology, speed, and cabling but have the following elements in common:

  • Use CSMA/CD as the means of gaining access to the network.

  • Are all defined in the IEEE 802.3 specifications.

  • Rely on broadcast transmissions that deliver signals to all nodes at the same time.

  • Are primarily baseband networks.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

IEEE 802.3

Ethernet networks use a frame to transmit information.

The frame ranges from 64 bytes to 1,518 bytes but are made of the same pieces.

frame A format that Ethernet networks use for transmitting data packets. The frame contains the preamble, source and destination addresses, data, type of protocol used to send the frame, and the CRC. (p. 139)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

Drivers and the NIC

Network devices use device drivers to allow hardware components to communicate to each other.

NIC drivers provide a virtual communication channel between the computer and the NIC.

device driver Software that helps a computer work with a particular device. (p. 140)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 136-141

Common LAN Models

5.1

You Try It

  • Activity 5A – Locating NIC Drivers (p. 140)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 142-147

Other LAN Models

5.2

Guide to Reading

Main Ideas

Token-passing networks take turns to gain access to the network. Token-passing networks can reliably determine when each computer will be able to transmit. Wireless networks rely on a type of contentious access known as CSMA/CA.

Key Terms

Attached Resource Computer Network (ARCnet)

Token Ring

Multistation Access Unit (MAU)

Integrated Services LAN (ISLAN)

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA)

Wi Fi


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 142-147

Other LAN Models

5.2

Tokens and Token Passing

Token-passing networks work like a relay race, passing the token in a predetermined order through the network.

Only the node that currently holds the token is allowed to transmit and it can only transmit a single packet.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 142-147

Other LAN Models

5.2

IEEE 802.4 and ARCNet

ARCNet was established before the IEEE developed the specifications for networks. It is popular for smaller networks because it is flexible and easy to set up.

Attached Resource Computer Network (ARCnet) A PC-based LAN architecture that corresponds to the IEEE 802.4 specification. An ARCnet is built using either a bus or a star topology. (p. 143)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 142-147

Other LAN Models

5.2

IEEE 802.5 and Token Ring

Token Ring is an IBM architecture separate from the IEEE token ring.

Token Ring relies on nodes that are connected to one of more hubs called multistation access units (MAU).

Token Ring An IBM-designed architecture created to connect PC’s with IBM’s larger midrange and mainframe computers. (p. 144)

Multistation Access Unit (MAU) The connection or hub that forms a logical ring. A Token Ring has a logical ring topology. (p. 144)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 142-147

Other LAN Models

5.2

IEEE 802.5 and Token Ring

  • A Token Ring network:

  • Typically transfers information at 1 Mbps or 4 Mbps per second (IEEE version) or at 4 Mbps or 16 Mbps (IBM version)

  • Uses baseband transmission

  • Is based on twisted-pair or fiber optic cable


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 142-147

Other LAN Models

5.2

Other IEEE LAN Specifications

  • Other wired IEEE 802 specifications include:

  • Isochronous LAN

  • Integrated Services LAN (ISLAN)

  • Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)

Integrated Services LAN (ISLAN) Isochronous LANs aimed at enabling multimedia capabilities on a network. (p. 145)

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) A technology that delivers different types of information—voice, data, video—in digital form over standard telephone cabling. (p. 145)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 142-147

Other LAN Models

5.2

Other IEEE LAN Specifications

  • IEEE 802.11 set standards for wireless LAN communications. These networks are used where:

  • Nodes must move around freely.

  • Network connections are needed in a busy area.

  • Connections are unreliable or dependent on external factors.

  • It is difficult or impossible to wire the building.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 142-147

Other LAN Models

5.2

Other IEEE LAN Specifications

Wireless networks use CSMA/CA to transmit data through the network.

The three major variations of wireless networking, 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g are commonly referred to as Wi Fi.

carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) These nodes “listen” to the transmission medium for a chance to transmit. (p. 145)

Wi Fi In wireless network technology, the three standards 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g are commonly referred to as this. (p. 145)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 142-147

Other LAN Models

5.2

Other IEEE LAN Specifications

  • At the Physical Layer, wireless LANs rely on two different methods of transmission:

  • Diffused infrared light signal

  • Radio signals


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 149-153

Other LAN Models

5.3

Guide to Reading

Main Ideas

TCP establishes a connection between hosts in order to reliably transmit data. IP relies on a system of addresses to locate individual hosts on the network. IP packets can be routed from one network to another.

Key Terms

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

Internet Protocol (IP)

Domain Name System (DNS)

User Datagram Protocol (UDP)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 149-153

Other LAN Models

5.3

Introduction to TCP/IP

As more and more companies found it essential to “internetwork” with other networks, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) emerged as a standard.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) A protocol that creates a connection between the sending and receiving computers, and then makes sure that all the data arrive safely. (p. 149)

Internet Protocol (IP) A protocol responsible for routing packets, sometimes through many different networks. (p. 149)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 149-153

Other LAN Models

5.3

Introduction to TCP/IP

Every time you use the Internet, you are working with numeric IP addresses. Your Web browser uses a Domain Name System (DNS) to connect the domain name to the 32-bit number of the IP address.

Domain Name Server (DNS) Web browsers use this to locate the IP address of the domain name that the user entered in the address bar of the browser (p. 150)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 149-153

Other LAN Models

5.3

Introduction to TCP/IP

  • Building on the TCP/IP stack are other protocols, including:

  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)

  • Telnet

  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)

  • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 149-153

Other LAN Models

5.3

TCP/IP and OSI

TCP/IP and the OSI do not exactly match up. But each of the TCP/IP layers correspond to one or more of the OSI layers.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 149-153

Other LAN Models

5.3

TCP/IP and OSI

The Transport Layer of the TCP/IP can use either TCP or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) depending on the requirements of the transmission.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) A connectionless transport protocol that is responsible for end-to-end transmission of data. It sends the data, but provides little in the way of error correction. (p. 151)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 149-153

Other LAN Models

5.3

Physical Address

Every computer in the world is assigned a unique IP address. The address consists of two parts, a network address and an address that identifies the node or host.

Depending on your network configuration, your IP address may be fixed, or assigned to your computer when you boot up.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 149-153

Other LAN Models

5.3

You Try It

  • Activity 5B – Finding Your IP Address and MAC Address

    Using Windows (p. 152)

  • Activity 5C – Finding Your IP Address and MAC Address

    Using UNIX (p. 153)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 155-158

Other Models and Protocols

5.4

Guide to Reading

Main Ideas

Many protocol stacks provide services and communication on different types of networks. AppleTalk is used for Macintosh networks. Microsoft Windows-based computers use the NetBIOS interface. NetWare is hardware-independent network software that allows networks running on different architectures to be joined together.

Key Terms

AppleTalk

Network Basic Input/ Output System (NetBIOS)

NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI)

NetWare

Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 155-158

Other Models and Protocols

5.4

AppleTalk

Apple Computer’s LAN hardware and software use a protocol stack called AppleTalk.

AppleTalk corresponds to five of the seven layers of the OSI reference model.

AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP) A protocol in an AppleTalk network that transports packets. (p. 156)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 155-158

Other Models and Protocols

5.4

NetBIOS

  • Most applications that run within Windows use NetBIOS. It has four primary functions.

  • Name Recognition

  • Datagram Service

  • Session service

  • NIC/session status

Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) An interface that evolved into a standard method for applications to access protocols in the Transport Layer. (p. 156)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 155-158

Other Models and Protocols

5.4

NETBEUI

Although NetBEUI is small and fast, it does not support routing. This restricts its usefulness to only a single segment of a LAN.

NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) A protocol developed by IBM in the mid-1980s and was designed for LANs of up to 200 computers. (p. 157)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 155-158

Other Models and Protocols

5.4

NETBEUI

NetBEUI was designed for small networks. On Microsoft Windows OS, it acts as a go-between for the lower and higher levels.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 155-158

Other Models and Protocols

5.4

Netware Protocols and IPX/SPX

Novell Corporation introduced NetWare early in the development of networking.

Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)is a routable protocol developed by Novell that can be used for larger networks.

NetWare A software networking product that runs on top of existing hardware, such as that used in the Ethernet and Token Ring networks. See also Novell Netware. (p. 158)

Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) A protocol stack that was designed by Novell for its NetWare networks. (p. 158)


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

pp. 155-158

Other Models and Protocols

5.4

Netware Protocols and IPX/SPX

Notice how some of the NetWare protocols operate at several OSI levels simultaneously.


Section 5 1 explain why standards are necessary for networking

Chapter 5

Resources

For more resources on this chapter, go to the Introduction to Networks and Networking Web site at http://networking.glencoe.com.


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