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Physical Computing PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Physical Computing. Introduction to ELECTRONICS “ Transducer ”. INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept. . Introduction to Digital World. Digitus (latin) = Finger. INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept. . Electronics.

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Physical Computing

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Physical Computing

Introduction to ELECTRONICS“Transducer”

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Introduction to Digital World

Digitus (latin) = Finger

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Electronics

deals with the controlled flow of electrons

  • The ability to control electron flow is usually applied to information handling or device control.

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Electricity

phenomena resulting from the

Presence and flow of electric charge

  • deals with the generation, distribution, control and application of electrical power

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Electric potential

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Electric current

a flow of electriccharge

unit for rate of flow of electric charge is the ampere.conductive metal 

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Electric ~ Trafic

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Electric Components

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Wires

carry 

electricity and 

telecommunications signals

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Switch (anahtar)

electrical component 

that can break an electrical circuit

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Resistors (direnç)

produces a voltage across itsterminals

that is proportional to

the electric current

V = IR

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Potentiometer

?

three-terminal resistor with

a sliding contact that forms

an adjustable voltage divider

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Diode (diyot)

allow an electric current in one

direction and to block the current

in the opposite direction

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Light Emiting Diode(LED)

 electronic light source

lower energy consumption, longer lifetime,

improved robustness, smaller size

and faster switching

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Circuit

a closed path or paths formed

by the interconnection of 

electronic components through

which an electric current can flow

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Breadboard

Resistor Value

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Transducers

  • A transducer is a device that converts one type of energy to another.

  • Transducers may be categorized by application: Sensor, actuator, or combination.

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Sensors

  • A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. 

  • Acoustic, sound, vibration

  • Automotive, transportation

  • Chemical

  • Electric current, electric potential

  • magnetic, radio

  • Environment, weather, humidity

  • Flow, fluid velocity

  • Radiation, subatomic particles

  • Navigation instruments

  • Position, angle, displacement

  • distance, speed, acceleration

  • Optical, light, imaging

  • Pressure

  • Force, density, level

  • Thermal, heat, temperature

  • Proximity, presence

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Acoustic, sound, vibration

Geophone

Hydrophone

Lace Sensor a guitar pickup

Microphone

Seismometer

Accelerometer

Automotive, transportation

Air-fuel ratio meter

Crank sensor

Curb feeler, used to warn driver of curbs

Defect detector, used on railroads to detect axle and signal problems in passing trains

MAP sensor

Parking sensors, used to alert the driver of unseen obstacles during parking manoeuvres

Radar gun, used to detect the speed of other objects

Speedometer, used measure the instantaneous speed of a land vehicle

Speed sensor, used to detect the speed of an object

Throttle position sensor, used to monitor the position of the throttle in an internal combustion engine

Variable reluctance sensor, used to measure position and speed of moving metal components

Water sensor or water-in-fuel sensor, used to indicate the presence of water in fuel

Wheel speed sensor, used for reading the speed of a vehicle's wheel rotatio

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Position, angle, displacementDistance, speed, acceleration

Accelerometer

Capacitive displacement sensor

Free fall sensor

Inclinometer

Laser rangefinder

Linear encoder

Linear variable differential transformer

Liquid capacitive inclinometers

Odometer

Piezoelectric accelerometer

Position sensor

Rotary encoder

Rotary variable differential transformer

Selsyn

Sudden Motion Sensor

Tilt sensor

Tachometer

Ultrasonic thickness gauge

Optical, light, imaging

Charge-coupled device

Colorimeter

Contact image sensor

Electro-optical sensor

Flame detector

Infra-red sensor

LED as light sensor

Nichols radiometer

Fiber optic sensors

Photodetector

Photodiode

Photomultiplier tubes

Phototransistor

Photoelectric sensor

Photoionization detector

Photomultiplier

Photoresistor

Photoswitch

Phototube

Proximity sensor

Scintillometer

Shack-Hartmann

Wavefront sensor

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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What Can Be Sensed?

  • Light

    • Presence, color, intensity, content, direction

  • Sound

    • Presence, frequency, intensity, content , direction

  • Heat

    • Temperature, wavelength, magnitude, direction

  • Chemicals

    • Presence, concentration, identity, etc.

  • Object Proximity

    • Presence/absence, distance, bearing, color, etc.

  • Physical orientation/attitude/position

    • Magnitude, pitch, roll, yaw, coordinates, etc.

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Button-Switchs

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Potentiometers

Slide Potentiometer

SoftPot Membrane Potentiometer

Rotary Potentiometer

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Light

Color light sensor

Photocell

CMOS Camera

IR Camera

IR Photo Transistor

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Infra Red

Infrared Emitters and Detectors

Photo Interrupter 

Description: This sensor is composed of an infrared emitter on one upright and a shielded infrared detector on the other. By emitting a beam of infrared light from one upright to the other, the sensor can detect when an object passes between the uprights, breaking the beam. Used for many applications including optical limit switches, pellet dispensing, general object detection, etc. Gap width = 10mm

Infrared Proximity Sensor

Description: Infrared proximity sensor made by Sharp. Part # GP2Y0A21YK has an analog output that varies from 3.1V at 10cm to 0.4V at 80cm. The sensor has a Japanese Solderless Terminal (JST) Connector. We recommend purchasing the related pigtail below or soldering wires directly to the back of the module.

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Proximity

ePIR

  • Features:

  • fully functional motion detection

  • based motion detection algorithms

  • 2.7-3.6VDC operating voltage

  • Typical current draw: 8.9mA

  • Wide 5 x 5m, 60 degree detection pattern

  • Simple hardware or advanced serial

  • Adjustable sensitivity, delay and

  • ambient light threshold

Ultrasonic Range Finder

PIR Motion Sensor

  • Features:

  • 42kHz Ultrasonic sensor

  • Operates from 2.5-5.5V

  • Low 2mA supply current

  • 20Hz reading rate

  • RS232 Serial Output - 9600bps

  • Analog Output - 10mV/inch

  • PWM Output - 147uS/inch

  • Small, light weight module

Red wire is power (5 to 12V). Brown wire is GND. Black wire is open collector Alarm.This unit works great from 5 to 12V (datasheet shows 12V). You can also install a jumper wire past the 5V regulator on board to make this unit work at 3.3V. Sensor uses [email protected]

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Magnetic

3-Axis Magnetometer

  • Description:PNI Corp's 3-axis magnetometer. Ready for the big time? Low noise, large resolution magnetic field sensing all packed into a user-friendly DIP module at your disposal. Stable over a wide temperature range, the MicroMag3 is a must have for orientation sensing and navigation.

  • Features:

  • 500uA @ 3.3V DC

  • Field measurement range +/-1100uT

  • Resolution as low as 0.015uT

  • SPI interface - no additional circuitry needed

Compass Module

Hall Effect Sensor

  • Features:

  • Simple I2C interface 

  • 2.7 to 5.2V supply range

  • 1 to 20Hz selectable update rate

  • True drop-in solution

  • 0.5 degree heading resolution

  • 1 degree repeatability

  • Supply current : 1mA @ 3V

Description: The US1881 is an integrated Hall effect latched sensor. That's nice but what does it do? Holding a magnet near the sensor will cause the output pin to toggle. This makes for a robust presence sensor. A reed sensor also works nicely, but can be limited by the glass encapsulation and size. A hall effect sensor is much smaller, but can handle less current than a reed switch.

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Temperature

Thermistor 10K

Infrared Thermometer 

Description: 10K thermistor with a negative temperature coefficient.  Good choice for temp-sensing aplications.

Description: Melexis' MLX90614ESF-BAA is an infrared thermometer designed for non-contact temperature sensing. An internal 17-bit ADC and a powerful DSP contribute to the MLX90614's high accuracy and resolution. It has a huge number of applications including body temperature measurment and movement detection.

Digital Temperature Sensor

Description: This is a breakout board for the incredibly small TMP102 digital temperature sensor. The TMP102 is a digital sensor (I2C a.k.a. TWI), has a resolution of 0.0625°C, and is accurate up to 0.5°C. The sensor requires very low-current, and is loaded with features.

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Weather

Weather Meters

Description: This is a simple weather station that includes an anemometer, wind vane, and rain gauge. Includes mounting hardware and RJ11 connections to the sensors. The anemometer uses a reed switch, so simple frequency detection can be used to measure wind speed. The wind vane uses a potentiometer to detect wind direction. The rain gauge acts as a switch that closes at measured increments. Please see the datasheet for more information.

Barometric Pressure Sensor

Description: The SCP1000-D01 is a great IC - now you can play with it! This is a simple breakout board bringing the SPI interface pins to a 0.1" header.Please note, we now stock the latest ASIC rev C (IC label 'D01').The SCP1000 is the very first absolute pressure sensor on the market to use MEMS technology to grant 17-bit resolution. Under ideal conditions, this sensor can detect the pressure difference within a 9cm column of air. 

Humidity Sensor

Description: This is a breakout board for Honeywell's HIH-4030 humidity sensor. The HIH-4030 measures relative humidity (%RH) and delivers it as an analog output voltage. You can connect the output of the sensor directly to an ADC on a microcontroller; and, thanks to the sensor's near linear voltage output, the data is very easy to process.

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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Biometrics

Polar Heart Rate Module

Description: This is a OEM module for the Polar Heart Rate system. This device works with any Polar heart rate strap to pickup the electromagnetic pulse and output a 1ms pulse indicating a heart beat has occurred. Embed a heart ratereading into your next project!

Fingerprint Scanner

Alcohol Gas Sensor

Description: The Nitgen RS232 serial fingerprint scanner is a powerful ADSP-BF531 Blackfin based system. This scanner is capable of gathering and storing unique finger prints. Simply hold your finger on the optical scanner, query the device over serial, and you will be issued a unique ID. Use that ID within your embedded system to determine access levels, time clocks, door locks, etc.

Description: This alcohol sensor is suitable for detecting alcohol concentration on your breath, just like your common breathalyzer. It has a high sensitivity and fast response time. Sensor provides an analog resistive output based on alcohol concentration. The drive circuit is very simple, all it needs is one resistor. A simple interface could be a 0-3.3V ADC. 

INST. Kerem Odabaşı - YTU - Interactive Telecomunication Design Dept.


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