Chapter 15
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Chapter 15. Country and City: The Natural World and the Social World. Overview. Population Demography Theories on Population Growth Population Problems Urbanization Patterns in urbanization In-class exercise The Environment. DEMOGRAPHY.

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Chapter 15

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Chapter 15

Country and City:

The Natural World

and

the Social World


Overview

  • Population

    • Demography

    • Theories on Population Growth

    • Population Problems

  • Urbanization

    • Patterns in urbanization

    • In-class exercise

  • The Environment


DEMOGRAPHY

  • Study of the size, composition, distribution and changes in human population

  • U.S. population

    • U.S. Census Bureau

    • 310 million in Nov. 2010

  • World population estimates

    • 6.8 billion in Nov. 2010

  • Population dynamics

    • Biological and social factors


DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES

  • Estimating Population Growth

    • Fertility Rates

      • The average number of children a woman bears

    • Mortality Rates

      • The average number of deaths per 1,000 people

      • Infant Mortality

        • The average number of deaths per 1,000 live births

    • Life Expectancy

      • The average age to which a person can expect to live

        • Life span or longevity

    • Migration

      • Immigration and emigration

        • Movement from one geographic area to another for the purpose of resettling


Fertility Rates


Infant Mortality Rates


Life Expectancy


Global Migration


Population Change in the U.S.


The World Population Problem

  • Historical background

    • Population boom in Europe during Industrial Revolution (1800)

    • What accounts for this?

  • The Malthusian Theorem

    • Thomas Malthus – “The Principles of Population”

      • Food production growth is additive

        • Other resources

      • Population growth is exponential

    • The “Malthusian Trap”


Sociological Perspectives on Population Growth

  • Influences on population growth

    • Religious

    • Political/Economic

    • Cultural

  • Population control strategies

    • Family Planning


Was Malthus Right?

  • Debate among demographers

  • “Neo-Malthusians”

    • Believe population growth will eventually outpace available resources

      • Leads to global catastrophe

  • Do statistics support or refute?


Was Malthus Right?

  • “Anti-Malthusians”

    • Believe that conclusions are faulty

  • Predict that population will peak and stabilize

    • Based on rationality, family planning, other changes

    • May even lead to population shrinkage

  • Believe that demographic transition will spread to developing world

    • From high to low birth/death rates


Which theory is correct?

  • Consider effect of new technologies on population

    • For example?

  • Potential for population booms or shrinkage

  • According to United Nations

    • #1 problem is worldwide population growth catastrophe


The American Population Problem

  • U.S. is 3rd most populace in the world

    • Along with China and India

  • The American standard of living

    • Impact of the American Dream and consumerism

    • If our standards were adopted by all

      • How many more planet Earths would we need to support the rest of the world?

  • Ecological Footprint Quiz

    • Estimate of resources needed for your consumption and waste


Ecological threat of Americans to the planet

Comprise approximately what % of world population?

6%

Consume approximately what % of world resources?

30%

Produce approximately what % of world waste?

50%

The impact of 1 American is equal to:

2 Japanese

6 Mexicans

13 Chinese

32 Indians

140 Bangladeshi

284 Tanzanians

372 Ethiopians

The American Population Problem


Next …

Urbanization


  • Urbanization

    • The movement of the masses to cities

    • The influence of cities on society

  • Cities

    • A place where a large number of people live on a permanent basis

    • Key to their origin is the development of efficient agriculture

      • City dwellers do not produce their own food


  • Metropolis

    • Urban area with large population

      • 500,000 to 1,000,000 residents

  • Megalopolis or Megacity

    • A group of densely populated metropolises

      • Eventually combine into huge urban complex

      • The “Southland”

  • Global City

    • Megacities with global impact

      • Centers of economic, political and social power


From country to city

In 1800

6% lived in cities

In 1920

50% lived in cities

In 2007

83% lived in cities

From city to city

Migration

From the “rust belt” to the “sun belt”

Fasting growing and shrinking cities

U.S. Urban Patterns


Urban Density in the U.S. (2009)

  • Population per square mile

    • U.S. average: 80

      • California average: 270

  • Urban density

    • Minneapolis: 1,800

    • Portland: 3,000

    • Los Angeles: 8,000

    • Philadelphia: 11,000

    • Chicago: 14,000

    • San Francisco: 16,000

    • Isla Vista: 18,000 (per ½ sq. mile)

    • New York City: 27,000 (Manhattan: 67,000)


Trends in Urbanization

  • Suburbanization

    • Shift toward edges of cities

  • Urban (white) flight

    • Movement of affluent classes to suburbs

      • Leaves behind decaying cities

    • Same urban problems follow into suburbs

  • Suburban (or urban) sprawl

    • Poorly-planned development vs. smart growth

  • Urban Renewal

    • Efforts to rebuild decaying inner-cities

  • Gentrification

    • Transform neighborhoods into more affluent communities

  • The Rural Rebound

    • Increase in rural counties, usually adjacent to city


In-Class Exercise

Word Search:

Population and Urbanization


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