Skin tutorial feedback
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Skin Tutorial Feedback. DN4 Dr Viv Rolfe. SKIN STRUCTURE. Take 5 minutes to chat through the structures of the skin. 3 main layers. melanocyte. Hair shaft. EPIDERMIS. Arrectores Pilorum. DERMIS. Sweat gland. Sebaceous gland. Hair follicle. SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER. Sweat gland

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Skin tutorial feedback

Skin Tutorial Feedback

DN4

Dr Viv Rolfe


Skin structure

SKIN STRUCTURE

Take 5 minutes to chat through the structures

of the skin.


3 main layers

3 main layers

melanocyte

Hair shaft

EPIDERMIS

Arrectores

Pilorum

DERMIS

Sweat gland

Sebaceous

gland

Hair

follicle

SUBCUTANEOUS

LAYER


Skin tutorial feedback

  • Sweat gland

    • Excretion of salts/water

    • Thermoregulation

  • Sebaceous gland

    • Secretion of sebum

    • Protective film waterproofs skin

    • Keeps hair soft

    • Antibacterial

  • Hair

    • Eye, ear & nasal hair protects from particles

    • Scalp hair protects from suns rays

    • Hairs provide insulation therefore are involved in thermoregulation

  • Hair follicle

    • Produces new hair

    • Hair shaft for insulation

  • Arretores pilorum

    • Muscle contracts to make hair erect

    • Important for thermoregulation and also occurs during fear


Where are the ceruminous glands

Where are the ceruminous glands?

In the ear.

They help form wax, and along with hair prevents theentrance of foreign bodies.


Skin function

SKIN FUNCTION


Skin tutorial feedback

  • Stratum corneum – dead cells

  • Stratum lucidium

  • S granulosum

  • S spinosum

  • S basale - mitosis


1 protection

1 Protection


What makes the skin an effective barrier

What makes the skin an effective barrier?

Discuss for 5 minutes.


Barrier

Barrier

Epidermis cells form a barrier of keratin-filled cells(waterproofing)

Cells are continually sheding and renewing

Sebum contains anti-microbials

Hairs are protective (e.g. eye lashes and nasal hairs)


How does the skin tan

How does the skin tan?

Discuss for 5 minutes.


Tanning

Tanning

MELANOCYTES

EPIDERMIS

DERMIS


Skin tutorial feedback

The tanning process

UV light stimulates enzymes that produce melanin

Melanocytes change shape and send out long

processes into the tissue

Epidermal cells take up melanin from the processes

The skin darkens and protects

from UV damage by reducing light absorption


Conditions relating to skin colour

Conditions relating to skin colour

Albinism -

congenital absence of pigment in skin, hair and eyes.

Vitiligo -absence of pigment producing white patches.


Skin tutorial feedback

Vitiligo – patches where melanin is absent

Age 27

Age 41


2 thermoregulation

2 Thermoregulation


Skin tutorial feedback

37o

HOT!


Skin tutorial feedback

Skin thermoreceptors

Message to brain “ITS HOT”

Nerve impulse to sweat glandto perspire and bloodvessels to widen (dilate)

Heat is lost as sweat evaporates,and from vessels by convection


Skin tutorial feedback

Skin thermoreceptors

Message to brain “ITS COLD”

Nerve impulse to ARRECTOR PILARIS muscle to contract

Hairs stand on end to giveinsulation

Blood vessels shrink (contract)

to minimise heat loss


Skin tutorial feedback

Hyperthermia

or

Pyrexia

  • Body temperature above 40oC

  • Body temperature severely reduced,becoming dangerous below 37 oC

Hypothermia


3 vitamin d synthesis

3 Vitamin D synthesis


Skin tutorial feedback

What does vitamin D do in the body?How is deficiency caused?What are the consequences?How could it be prevented?


Skin tutorial feedback

How is it made?

Sunlight produces pro vitamin D in the skin

This is transported to the liver and kidney, and

active vitamin D is formed.


What does it do

What does it do?

  • Vitamin D is involved in calcium balance

  • It works with the hormone parathyrin to

  • BOOST Ca++ when blood levels are LOW


Vitamin d deficiency

Vitamin D deficiency

What does it cause?

Rickets

How could it occur?

At high altitude or cold climates where the skin is covered

in clothing.

In polluted areas where UV rays can’t break through.

How can we prevent it?Fish, eggs, liver rich in vitamin D

Sunbathing


Skin as a sensory organ

Skin as a sensory organ


Skin receptors

Skin receptors

Monitor changes in

temperature

pressure

pain


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