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INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL ANATOMY. Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D . 24. September 201 3 Tuesday. topographical anatomy. organization of the human body as major parts or segments. Head N eck T runk t horax , abdomen, back, & pelvis/perineum U pper limbs & lower limbs.

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INTRODUCTION TO REGIONAL ANATOMY

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Introduction to regional anatomy

INTRODUCTION TO REGIONALANATOMY

Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D. 24. September2013 Tuesday


Introduction to regional anatomy

topographical anatomy

organization of the human body as major parts or segments

Head

Neck

Trunk

thorax, abdomen, back, & pelvis/perineum

Upper limbs & lower limbs

Anterioraspect of theleg


Introduction to regional anatomy

Cavities in the body

Diaphragm divides body cavity into thoracic & abdominopelviccavities.

Mediastinumcontains all structures of the thoracic cavity except the lungs.


Introduction to regional anatomy

Ventral Body Cavity Membranes

  • Parietal serosa lines internal body walls.

  • Visceral serosa covers the internal organs.

  • Cavity between two membranes filled with lubricating serous fluid that is produced by the membranes.


Introduction to regional anatomy

  • Serous Membranes: Named for Their Specific Cavities& Organs

  • Pericardium refers to heart.

  • Pleura refers to lungs and thoracic cavity.

  • Peritoneum refers to abdominopelvic cavity.


Introduction to regional anatomy

Other Body Cavities

  • Oral and digestive – mouth and cavities of the digestive organs

  • Nasal –located within and posterior to the nose

  • Orbital – house the eyes

  • Middle ear – contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sound vibrations

  • Synovial – joint cavities


Introduction to regional anatomy

reGIONSin the body

  • Head & neck

  • Upperlimb

  • Thorax

  • Abdomen

  • Back

  • Pelvis &Perineum

  • Lowerlimb


Introduction to regional anatomy

HEAD

Neurocranium

Skeleton of theface


Introduction to regional anatomy

NECK

transitional area between base of the cranium superiorly clavicles inferiorly

joins the head to the trunk and limbs

major conduit for structures passing between them.

several important organs with unique functions located here


Introduction to regional anatomy

UPPER LIMB

  • shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand

  • Shoulder

  • area of upper limb attachment to trunk

  • Arm

  • between shoulder & elbow joint

  • Forearm

  • between elbow joint & wrist joint

  • Hand

  • distal to the wrist joint


Introduction to regional anatomy

UPPER LIMB

SHOULDER

proximal segment of the limb

overlaps parts of the trunk (thorax and back) and lower lateral neck

Bone framework of the shoulder

clavicle and scapula, form the pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle); proximal end of the humerus


Introduction to regional anatomy

UPPER LIMB

SHOULDER

overlies half of the pectoral girdle.

pectoral (shoulder) girdle

a bony ring

formed by scapulae and clavicles

completed anteriorly by theupperpartof the sternum


Introduction to regional anatomy

UPPER LIMB

  • AXILLA

area of transition between the neck and the arm

Formed by

Clavicle

Scapula

Upperthoracic wall

Humerus

Related muscles


Introduction to regional anatomy

UPPER LIMB

Arm

first segment of the free upper limb

between shoulder & elbow

Humerus

Forearm

second longest segment of the limb

between elbow & wrist (L. carpus)

Radius&Ulna


Introduction to regional anatomy

Hand

L. manus

part of the upper limb distal to the forearm

UPPER LIMB

  • Wrist

  • Palm

  • Dorsum of hand

  • Digits (fingers)


Introduction to regional anatomy

THORAX

between the neck and abdomen

  • .


Introduction to regional anatomy

THORAcIC SKELETON

  • forms the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage

  • protectsthe thoracic viscera and some abdominal organs.

12 pairs of ribs &associated costal cartilages

12 thoracic vertebrae & intervertebral discs

Sternum


Introduction to regional anatomy

ABDOMEN

  • between thorax & pelvis (pelvic inlet)

  • organs of the alimentary system and part of the urogenital system

  • Containment of the abdominal organs and their contents

  • provided by musculoaponeurotic walls anterolaterally, diaphragmsuperiorly, muscles of the pelvis inferiorly


Introduction to regional anatomy

BACK

posterior aspect of the body

provides the musculoskeletal axis of support for the trunk.

Bony elements

mainlyvertebrae

+ proximal elements of the ribs

+ superior aspects of the pelvic bones

+ posterior basal regions of the skull


Introduction to regional anatomy

BACK

spinal cord and proximal parts of the spinal nerves

send and receive information to and from most of the body.


Introduction to regional anatomy

PELVIS

  • from the pelvic inlet to the pelvic diaphragm

part of the trunk inferoposterior to abdomen area of transition between trunk & lower limbs

pelvic cavity

inferiormostpart of the abdominopelviccavity

  • PERINEUM

  • between the sex organs and the anus


Introduction to regional anatomy

PelvIcgIrdle

Pelvissurrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis)

formed by three bones

Right and left hip bones (coxal bones; pelvic bones)

fusion of three bones, the ilium, ischium, and pubis

Sacrum

connects the vertebral column to the two femora


Introduction to regional anatomy

LOWER LIMB

  • Gluteal region

  • between the iliac crest and the fold of skin (gluteal fold)

  • Thigh

  • Knee

  • Leg

  • Ankle

  • Foot


Introduction to regional anatomy

  • GLUTEAL REGION

LOWER LIMB

transitional region between the trunk and free lower limbs


Introduction to regional anatomy

  • FEMORAL REGION

LOWER LIMB

between gluteal, abdominal, and perineal regions proximally

knee region distally

most of the femur (thigh bone)


Introduction to regional anatomy

  • KNEE REGION

LOWER LIMB

distal femur and proximal tibia

head of the fibula

patella (knee cap

joints between these bony structures

posterior region of the knee (L. poples)

popliteal fossa


Introduction to regional anatomy

LOWER LIMB

Legregion

between knee joint & ankle joint

most of the tibia (shin bone)

fibula (calf bone)

Ankle region

(L. tarsus)

talocruralregion (L. regiotalocruralis)

Foot

(L. pes) or foot region (L. regiopedis)

distal part of the lower limb


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