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第4章 局域网基础 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第4章 局域网基础 局域网 LAN(Local Area Network) 的发展始于上世纪70年代,由于其具有应用范围广、使用方便、管理简单、构造灵活、投资小、速度快、误码率低、支持多种拓扑结构及数据处理模式等特点,所以至今仍是一个十分活跃的领域。决定 LAN 特性的主要技术有三个: ⑴ 用以传输数据的传输介质; ⑵ 用以连接各种设备的拓扑结构; ⑶ 用以共享资源的介质访问控制方法。 由此可以看出,局域网技术主要涉及物理网络的连接、传输和控制问题。. 4.1 IEEE 802 标准与局域网

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第4章 局域网基础

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4

LANLocal Area Network70LAN


4.1 IEEE 802

IEEEInstitate of Electrical and Electronic Engineer802IEEE 802LANIEEE 802843ISOLANISO 8802-X

4.1.1 IEEE 802

IEEE 802LANLAN


802.1 (HILI)LAN

802.1A 1997

802.1B 1995

802.2 LLC1998

802.3 /CSMA/CD1998

802.4 1990

802.5 1997

802.6 MAN1994

802.7

802.8

802.9

802.10 1998

802.11 WLAN1997

802.12 100 Mb1998

802.14 CATV1998

802.15 WPAN

802.16


802.10

802.1B

802.1A

802.1B

802.2 LLC

LLC

802.3

802.4

802.5

802.6

802.9

802.11

802.12

MAC

802.7

802.8

4-1

LLCMACMACLLC802.1LLAN


LLC

MAC

4-2

4.1.2 LAN

LANLANISO/OSI4-2

LANLANIEEE 802MACMedium Access ControlLLCLogical Link Control


4.2

LANIEEE 802MACLAN


4.2.1

IEEE 802.3/CSMA/CD Carrior Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection

1 CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD


2

CSMA

1-CSMA1

P-CSMAP1-PP-PP=11-P=04-3CSMA


0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.01-CSMA

CSMA

0.1-CSMA

1-CSMA

0.5-CSMA

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

4-3 CSMA


3Collision domain

CSMA/CDBLF = L/BF

XYSStF2t2tCSMA/CDt4-4


S

X

Y

X

t

Y

Y

F=L/B

S

X

Y

t

X

t

Y

F=L/B

t

4-4 a F2t

4-4 b F<2t

Y


4.1 10 MbLAN64 byte200 m/s

L = 64 byte = 512 bit10 Mbbit0.1sF=51.2 s

LANCSMA/CD:

t F/2=51.2/2 = 25.6s

S = 200 * 25.6 = 5120 m

5120 m


4IEEE 802.3

802.3 LANLANCSMA/CD

IEEE 802.34

10base-5 10mmThickNet802.310 Mb500m

10base-2 5mmThinNet802.3a10 Mb200m186m


10base-T HUB802.3i10 Mb100m

10base-F 802.3j 10base-F

10Base-FLfiber link-2000m

10Base-FBfiber backbone-2000m

10Base-FPfiber passive-LAN500m33

802.775CATVLAN10 BROAD-36LAN10 Mb 3600m


A

B

C

D

H

G

F

E

4-5

4.2.2

802.5MACPH(4-5) Token passing)


1.

Token


SD AC ED

PPPTMRRR

4-6 IEEE802.5

IEEE802.54-6

SDACED1ACPPP8000111T T=0T=1MRRR


2.

1M1

2


3.

R Mbps200m/s1 bit200/R1000m1M bps5

1 bit 1051015


CSMA/CD

4-7

4-7


A

B

C

D

E

F

G

4-8 7C

4.2.3

Token Bus)IEEE802.4

75MAC4-8

AFEBGD


1

TSPSNS

2

TSTSNS n Who-follows)PSTSNS


3.

Solicit-succeed)TSNSTSNSNSP-

4.

XXXX


5.

1

2Claim-Token

3XX


4.2.4 IEEE 802.3802.4802.5

1802.3

802.3

2500m


2802.4

802.4CATV

802.4802.3802.5


3802.5

802.5


4-9

4.3

4. 3. 1


4. 3. 2

Twisted Pair

UTPSTPEIAEIA 91EIA568A

UTPCat 316 M Hz 10M LAN

UTPCat 420 M Hz

UTPCat 5100 M Hz

UTPCat 5E155 M Hz

UTPCat 6200 M Hz


Coaxial Cable

5075

10 M bpsLAN10 M bps500mIEEE802.310BASE-5185m10BASE-2

450 M Hz/10Broad-36CATV3600m

.


4-10

LAN

optical fiber

1.

2.

8~12m


4. 3. 3

1.

(1)

(2) /

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)


2.

(1)

(2)

(3)


3.

(CC)

(LC) CPU

(CP)CCLC


4. 3. 4

/PADPSE


/

1. /PAD

PADPAD

2. PSE

PSEPSE


PSE

1

2

3/

4-11 PADPSE


PAD

PAD

PSE

PAD

PSE

PSE

4-11


1.FDMTDMTDM

2. /


4-12

/


4. 3. 5

Server

NOS

E-MAIL


Workstation


4. 3. 6 Adapters)

NOS


4. 3. 7

Repeater)

500m100LAN45LAN2500m1-2-3-4-5

4-14


1

3

5

R1

R2

R3

R4

2

4

4-14

1-2-3-4-5

1

22

33

44

55


Bridge)

MACMAC

1 .

LAN

LAN

LAN

4-15


BNC

LAN1

LAN2

4-15 a)

LAN1

LAN2

4-15 b)


LAN1

4-15 c)

LAN2

LAN

MAC

2.

TB(Transparent Bridge)

TBIEEE802.1dTBMAC


MAC

1

300

TBLANTB4-16


LAN1

LAN2

B1

B2

B1

LAN2

B3

B4

LAN1

LAN3

B2

B3

B4

LAN4

LAN3

LAN4

4-16


SRBSource Routing Bridge

SRBLANLANSRBLAN


TBSRB

TBSRB

TBSRB

TBSRB

TBSRB

TBSRBLAN


3.

LAN


HUB

LAN

RJ-45HUBBNCAUI BNCAUI HUBCSMA/CD HUB


RJ-45

RJ-45

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4-17

HUB

1.HUB

HUBLAN

UTPHUBUTP4-17 HUBCSMA/CD4-18


2. HUB

HUBHUBHUBLANLANLAN38


Switch)

12

CSMA/CD//

LANLANLANLAN

x Mb n nx Mb 48MAC


1000 Mb

1000 Mb

100 Mb

100 Mb

100 Mb

10 Mb

10 Mb

HUB

HUB

HUB

10 Mb

10 Mb

10 Mb

LAN 3

LAN 1

LAN 2

4 19


CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

Router

CPU44-1920

4-19


i

j

4-20


4-20

1

2

1 i IP j

2IP/MAC


1.

IPMAC

2.

3. //

4.


1. /MACIP

2. IPNNHOPSIP

3. IPDL


MACIPDECnet


Gateway)

AS Autonomous SystemIGPInterior Gateway ProtocolIGPEGPExterior Gateway ProtocolEGP4-21


A

B

IGP1

IGP2

EGP

4-21

EGPIGP


N

DL

PH

AS 1

LAN1

1

1

2

2

LAN2

AS 2

4-22

4-22

LANAS


4.4

LAN NOSNetwork Operating SystemLANNOSNOSNOS


NOSLANLAN

1. peer-to peer

LAN


2.

LAN/Workstation/server W/S)

W/S(Atomicity)Concurrency


3. /Client/server C/S

C/S/Server Client Client Server C/S2ClientI/OServer

C/S/ ClientServerLANWAN


LAN NOS

4.4.1 Novell Netware

Novell Netware2501000NetwareNOSNetware V3.0NOS


SAP

File server

NCP

SPX

IPX

Ethernet

Token ring

ARCnet

Netware

Netware44-23

4-23 Netware

NetwareLANIPXNCPNetware Core ProtocolSPXSequences Packet eXchangeSAP(Service Advertising ProtocolFile server


NCP

IPX / SPX

Shell

IPX / SPX

DOS

4-24 Netware

Netware

NetwareNOSNCPShell4-24


NOSNCP150

ShellNOSNCPinterpreterredirectorShellDOSDOS IPX/SPX Shell

NOS


Netware

1

LANNetware250DOSMacintoshOS/2UNIX EthernetARCnetToken Ring IPXSPXNCPRIPSAPTCP/IPApple Talk 100

2


3SFT

Netware

FAT

Hot Fix

4

ODIOpen Data Link Interface

Netware StreamsNOS


4.4.2 Windows NT

Windows NTNetware

NetwareWindows NTClient/Server

Windows NTNetwareDOSOS/2UNIX


I/O

SMB

TDI

TCP/IP

NWLink

NetBEUI

Appletalk

DLE

NDIS

Windows NTNT ServerNT Wowkstation

Windows NT


1NTEthernetARCnetToken RingFDDI

2NDISNetwork Drive Interface Specification

3TCP/IPNWLinkNetBEUIAppletalkDLE

4TDI(Transport Drive Interface)NT

5SMB


Windows NT

NT

1Workgroup)


2Domain

NT ServerDC)

Trust relation ships)

DC


512 bit ( bit 0.1s

9.6 s ( 96 bit

16

1518 Byte

512 bit

MAC

48 bit

4.5

4.5.1 10M

10MIEEE802.310Base-5 10Base-2 10Base-T10Base-F4-1

4-1 10M


10 Base-5

10 Base-2

10 Base-T

10 Base-F

IEEE

802.3

802.3a

802.3i

802.3j

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

10 mm

5 mm

345UTP

500 m

185 m

200 m

2 km

5

5

3

2

100

30

4-2 10 M


1

T

2

HUB

HUB

10 M


3

HUBBNCAUI(

T

BNC/AUI

2

1

4

3

2

1


1

2

3

5

HUBHUB10 M


4.6.2 100 M

100 M Fast EthernetIEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3u 100 M 100 Base-TX 100 Base-T4100 Base-FX

100 M

1

2

1

2

3

3

4


CSMA/CD

MAC

MII

PCS

PMD

100Base-TX

100Base-T4

100Base-FX

PH

25 UTP

2 150 STP

4 3/4/5 UTP

2 MM

4-25 100M

100 M

MII medium independent interface MAC PH MAC4bitPCSphysical coding sublayerPCS5 bitPMD(physical medium dependent)


5B

5B

0000 11110

1000 10010

0001 01001

1001 10011

0010 10100

1010 10110

0011 10101

1011 10111

0100 01010

1100 11010

PH100 M 10 M

1100Base-TX 5 UTP10 Base-T100Base-TXNRZ4B/5BMLT-3


2 100 Base-FX 100Base-FX 10 Base-F 100M2 km 4B/5BMLT-3NRZ

3100Base-T4 100Base-T433100Base-T48B/6T8 bit6trits8B/6T1612NRZ25%75 M100 Mbps33


B1B2B3B4B5B6

B1B2B3B4B5B6

T1T4T7T10

T2T5T8T11

T1T2T3T4T5T6

T1T2T3T4T5T6

T3T6T9T12

A

B

100Base-T443AB1B2T1T2

25M75M100 Mbps 100Base-T4


10 Base-T

100 Base-TX

100 Base-FX

100 Base-T4

ASCII

4B/5B

MLT-3

4B/5B

NRZ

8B/6T

MLT-3

3/4/5UTP

150 STP/ 5UTP

MM

3/4/5UTP

20 M Hz

125 M Hz

125 M Hz

25 M Hz

2

2

2

4

4-3 100M10 Base-T

150 STP150 9D1000 Mb25 m


1000 M

100 M

100 M

AS2

10 M

HUB

HUB

1

2

4-26

AS1

4.6.3 1000 M

1000 M1 Gb 1000 M802.3z4-26


MAC

CSMA/CD

/

GMII

PAM5

8b/10b

8b/10b

8b/10b

1000 Base-SX

1000 Base-LX

1000 Base-T

1000 Base-CX

PH

MM550m

SM 5 km

MM

550m~ 5 km

5UTP 550 m

150 STP 25 m

11000 M

1000Base-XCXLXSX/1000Base-T/CX/bit0.001 s

MAC 512Byte4096 bit1518Byte=12144 bitCSMA/CD


2MAC

10M64 Byte=512 bitbit0.1s2500m100M5.12 s 5UTP200mbit50.512 s25m

512 b 512 B802.3zFrame Bursting )


carrier extension512Bburst frame011500B96 bit1518B3000B


31000 Base-X

1000 Base-X802.3z1000 Base-SX1000 Base-LX1000 Base-CX

1000 Base-CX25m

10 GMIIGigabit medium independent intreface8 bitbit125 M bps81 G bps


1000 Base-X/PCS(Physical coding sublayer)8b/10b8 10 104560010110 bit0/1DC8 bit


41000Base-T

1000 Base-T802.3ab45UTP250M bps5UTP1000 Base-T

5UTP 1000 Base-TTrellis/45GMIIPCS8 bitTrellis42 bitPAM5pulse amplitude modulation with five levelUTP8 bit4PAM5UTP125 M bps


4-26 UTP

125 M Hz5UTPTrellisPAM5

PAM548bit28=256PAM554=625625-256=369

1000 Base-Thybrid4-26


IEEE

1000 Base-T802.3ab

45UTPtrellisPAM5100

1000 Base-CX802.3z

150258B/10B

1000 Base-LX802.3z

MM550SM50008B/10B

1000 Base-SX802.3z

MM2205508B/10B

4-4


4.7

VLANVirtual LANIEEE802.1QVLANVLANVLANVLAN

VLAN 4-28LAN10VLAN


C3

B3

A4

LAN3

C2

B2

A3

LAN2

C1

B1

A2

A1

LAN1

VLAN3

VLAN2

VLAN1

4-27


4

1

4-28a4-28b

11VLAN1VLAN2


VLAN1

VLAN2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

4-28a

1

2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

VLAN1

VLAN2

4-28b


2MAC

MACMACMAC


  • 3IP

  • MACVLAN

  • VLAN

    MACMAC


4IP

IPVLANVLANVLANIPIPIPIPIPVLANVLAN


1

2

VLAN

3


VPN

IP

4-29 VPN

VPNVitual Private NetworkVPNVPN

1VPN

VPNIP


2VPN

VPN

WAN

ISP

VPN

VPN


3VPN

VPN Intranet VPNIntranetLAN

VPNExtranet VPN

VPNAccess VPN


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