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第4章 局域网基础 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第4章 局域网基础 局域网 LAN(Local Area Network) 的发展始于上世纪70年代,由于其具有应用范围广、使用方便、管理简单、构造灵活、投资小、速度快、误码率低、支持多种拓扑结构及数据处理模式等特点,所以至今仍是一个十分活跃的领域。决定 LAN 特性的主要技术有三个: ⑴ 用以传输数据的传输介质; ⑵ 用以连接各种设备的拓扑结构; ⑶ 用以共享资源的介质访问控制方法。 由此可以看出,局域网技术主要涉及物理网络的连接、传输和控制问题。. 4.1 IEEE 802 标准与局域网

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第4章 局域网基础

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4

4

LANLocal Area Network70LAN


4

4.1 IEEE 802

IEEEInstitate of Electrical and Electronic Engineer802IEEE 802LANIEEE 802843ISOLANISO 8802-X

4.1.1 IEEE 802

IEEE 802LANLAN


4

802.1 (HILI)LAN

802.1A 1997

802.1B 1995

802.2 LLC1998

802.3 /CSMA/CD1998

802.4 1990

802.5 1997

802.6 MAN1994

802.7

802.8

802.9

802.10 1998

802.11 WLAN1997

802.12 100 Mb1998

802.14 CATV1998

802.15 WPAN

802.16


4

802.10

802.1B

802.1A

802.1B

802.2 LLC

LLC

802.3

802.4

802.5

802.6

802.9

802.11

802.12

MAC

802.7

802.8

4-1

LLCMACMACLLC802.1LLAN


4

LLC

MAC

4-2

4.1.2 LAN

LANLANISO/OSI4-2

LANLANIEEE 802MACMedium Access ControlLLCLogical Link Control


4

4.2

LANIEEE 802MACLAN


4

4.2.1

IEEE 802.3/CSMA/CD Carrior Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection

1 CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD


4

2

CSMA

1-CSMA1

P-CSMAP1-PP-PP=11-P=04-3CSMA


4

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.01-CSMA

CSMA

0.1-CSMA

1-CSMA

0.5-CSMA

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

4-3 CSMA


4

3Collision domain

CSMA/CDBLF = L/BF

XYSStF2t2tCSMA/CDt4-4


4

S

X

Y

X

t

Y

Y

F=L/B

S

X

Y

t

X

t

Y

F=L/B

t

4-4 a F2t

4-4 b F<2t

Y


4

4.1 10 MbLAN64 byte200 m/s

L = 64 byte = 512 bit10 Mbbit0.1sF=51.2 s

LANCSMA/CD:

t F/2=51.2/2 = 25.6s

S = 200 * 25.6 = 5120 m

5120 m


4

4IEEE 802.3

802.3 LANLANCSMA/CD

IEEE 802.34

10base-5 10mmThickNet802.310 Mb500m

10base-2 5mmThinNet802.3a10 Mb200m186m


4

10base-T HUB802.3i10 Mb100m

10base-F 802.3j 10base-F

10Base-FLfiber link-2000m

10Base-FBfiber backbone-2000m

10Base-FPfiber passive-LAN500m33

802.775CATVLAN10 BROAD-36LAN10 Mb 3600m


4

A

B

C

D

H

G

F

E

4-5

4.2.2

802.5MACPH(4-5) Token passing)


4

1.

Token


4

SD AC ED

PPPTMRRR

4-6 IEEE802.5

IEEE802.54-6

SDACED1ACPPP8000111T T=0T=1MRRR


4

2.

1M1

2


4

3.

R Mbps200m/s1 bit200/R1000m1M bps5

1 bit 1051015


4

CSMA/CD

4-7

4-7


4

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

4-8 7C

4.2.3

Token Bus)IEEE802.4

75MAC4-8

AFEBGD


4

1

TSPSNS

2

TSTSNS n Who-follows)PSTSNS


4

3.

Solicit-succeed)TSNSTSNSNSP-

4.

XXXX


4

5.

1

2Claim-Token

3XX


4

4.2.4 IEEE 802.3802.4802.5

1802.3

802.3

2500m


4

2802.4

802.4CATV

802.4802.3802.5


4

3802.5

802.5


4

4-9

4.3

4. 3. 1


4

4. 3. 2

Twisted Pair

UTPSTPEIAEIA 91EIA568A

UTPCat 316 M Hz 10M LAN

UTPCat 420 M Hz

UTPCat 5100 M Hz

UTPCat 5E155 M Hz

UTPCat 6200 M Hz


4

Coaxial Cable

5075

10 M bpsLAN10 M bps500mIEEE802.310BASE-5185m10BASE-2

450 M Hz/10Broad-36CATV3600m

.


4

4-10

LAN

optical fiber

1.

2.

8~12m


4

4. 3. 3

1.

(1)

(2) /

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)


4

2.

(1)

(2)

(3)


4

3.

(CC)

(LC) CPU

(CP)CCLC


4

4. 3. 4

/PADPSE


4

/

1. /PAD

PADPAD

2. PSE

PSEPSE


4

PSE

1

2

3/

4-11 PADPSE


4

PAD

PAD

PSE

PAD

PSE

PSE

4-11


4

1.FDMTDMTDM

2. /


4

4-12

/


4

4. 3. 5

Server

NOS

E-MAIL


4

Workstation


4

4. 3. 6 Adapters)

NOS


4

4. 3. 7

Repeater)

500m100LAN45LAN2500m1-2-3-4-5

4-14


4

1

3

5

R1

R2

R3

R4

2

4

4-14

1-2-3-4-5

1

22

33

44

55


4

Bridge)

MACMAC

1 .

LAN

LAN

LAN

4-15


4

BNC

LAN1

LAN2

4-15 a)

LAN1

LAN2

4-15 b)


4

LAN1

4-15 c)

LAN2

LAN

MAC

2.

TB(Transparent Bridge)

TBIEEE802.1dTBMAC


4

MAC

1

300

TBLANTB4-16


4

LAN1

LAN2

B1

B2

B1

LAN2

B3

B4

LAN1

LAN3

B2

B3

B4

LAN4

LAN3

LAN4

4-16


4

SRBSource Routing Bridge

SRBLANLANSRBLAN


4

TBSRB

TBSRB

TBSRB

TBSRB

TBSRB

TBSRBLAN


4

3.

LAN


4

HUB

LAN

RJ-45HUBBNCAUI BNCAUI HUBCSMA/CD HUB


4

RJ-45

RJ-45

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

4-17

HUB

1.HUB

HUBLAN

UTPHUBUTP4-17 HUBCSMA/CD4-18


4

2. HUB

HUBHUBHUBLANLANLAN38


4

Switch)

12

CSMA/CD//

LANLANLANLAN

x Mb n nx Mb 48MAC


4

1000 Mb

1000 Mb

100 Mb

100 Mb

100 Mb

10 Mb

10 Mb

HUB

HUB

HUB

10 Mb

10 Mb

10 Mb

LAN 3

LAN 1

LAN 2

4 19


4

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

CPU

Router

CPU44-1920

4-19


4

i

j

4-20


4

4-20

1

2

1 i IP j

2IP/MAC


4

1.

IPMAC

2.

3. //

4.


4

1. /MACIP

2. IPNNHOPSIP

3. IPDL


4

MACIPDECnet


4

Gateway)

AS Autonomous SystemIGPInterior Gateway ProtocolIGPEGPExterior Gateway ProtocolEGP4-21


4

A

B

IGP1

IGP2

EGP

4-21

EGPIGP


4

N

DL

PH

AS 1

LAN1

1

1

2

2

LAN2

AS 2

4-22

4-22

LANAS


4

4.4

LAN NOSNetwork Operating SystemLANNOSNOSNOS


4

NOSLANLAN

1. peer-to peer

LAN


4

2.

LAN/Workstation/server W/S)

W/S(Atomicity)Concurrency


4

3. /Client/server C/S

C/S/Server Client Client Server C/S2ClientI/OServer

C/S/ ClientServerLANWAN


4

LAN NOS

4.4.1 Novell Netware

Novell Netware2501000NetwareNOSNetware V3.0NOS


4

SAP

File server

NCP

SPX

IPX

Ethernet

Token ring

ARCnet

Netware

Netware44-23

4-23 Netware

NetwareLANIPXNCPNetware Core ProtocolSPXSequences Packet eXchangeSAP(Service Advertising ProtocolFile server


4

NCP

IPX / SPX

Shell

IPX / SPX

DOS

4-24 Netware

Netware

NetwareNOSNCPShell4-24


4

NOSNCP150

ShellNOSNCPinterpreterredirectorShellDOSDOS IPX/SPX Shell

NOS


4

Netware

1

LANNetware250DOSMacintoshOS/2UNIX EthernetARCnetToken Ring IPXSPXNCPRIPSAPTCP/IPApple Talk 100

2


4

3SFT

Netware

FAT

Hot Fix

4

ODIOpen Data Link Interface

Netware StreamsNOS


4

4.4.2 Windows NT

Windows NTNetware

NetwareWindows NTClient/Server

Windows NTNetwareDOSOS/2UNIX


4

I/O

SMB

TDI

TCP/IP

NWLink

NetBEUI

Appletalk

DLE

NDIS

Windows NTNT ServerNT Wowkstation

Windows NT


4

1NTEthernetARCnetToken RingFDDI

2NDISNetwork Drive Interface Specification

3TCP/IPNWLinkNetBEUIAppletalkDLE

4TDI(Transport Drive Interface)NT

5SMB


4

Windows NT

NT

1Workgroup)


4

2Domain

NT ServerDC)

Trust relation ships)

DC


4

512 bit ( bit 0.1s

9.6 s ( 96 bit

16

1518 Byte

512 bit

MAC

48 bit

4.5

4.5.1 10M

10MIEEE802.310Base-5 10Base-2 10Base-T10Base-F4-1

4-1 10M


4

10 Base-5

10 Base-2

10 Base-T

10 Base-F

IEEE

802.3

802.3a

802.3i

802.3j

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

10 mm

5 mm

345UTP

500 m

185 m

200 m

2 km

5

5

3

2

100

30

4-2 10 M


4

1

T

2

HUB

HUB

10 M


4

3

HUBBNCAUI(

T

BNC/AUI

2

1

4

3

2

1


4

1

2

3

5

HUBHUB10 M


4

4.6.2 100 M

100 M Fast EthernetIEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3u 100 M 100 Base-TX 100 Base-T4100 Base-FX

100 M

1

2

1

2

3

3

4


4

CSMA/CD

MAC

MII

PCS

PMD

100Base-TX

100Base-T4

100Base-FX

PH

25 UTP

2 150 STP

4 3/4/5 UTP

2 MM

4-25 100M

100 M

MII medium independent interface MAC PH MAC4bitPCSphysical coding sublayerPCS5 bitPMD(physical medium dependent)


4

5B

5B

0000 11110

1000 10010

0001 01001

1001 10011

0010 10100

1010 10110

0011 10101

1011 10111

0100 01010

1100 11010

PH100 M 10 M

1100Base-TX 5 UTP10 Base-T100Base-TXNRZ4B/5BMLT-3


4

2 100 Base-FX 100Base-FX 10 Base-F 100M2 km 4B/5BMLT-3NRZ

3100Base-T4 100Base-T433100Base-T48B/6T8 bit6trits8B/6T1612NRZ25%75 M100 Mbps33


4

B1B2B3B4B5B6

B1B2B3B4B5B6

T1T4T7T10

T2T5T8T11

T1T2T3T4T5T6

T1T2T3T4T5T6

T3T6T9T12

A

B

100Base-T443AB1B2T1T2

25M75M100 Mbps 100Base-T4


4

10 Base-T

100 Base-TX

100 Base-FX

100 Base-T4

ASCII

4B/5B

MLT-3

4B/5B

NRZ

8B/6T

MLT-3

3/4/5UTP

150 STP/ 5UTP

MM

3/4/5UTP

20 M Hz

125 M Hz

125 M Hz

25 M Hz

2

2

2

4

4-3 100M10 Base-T

150 STP150 9D1000 Mb25 m


4

1000 M

100 M

100 M

AS2

10 M

HUB

HUB

1

2

4-26

AS1

4.6.3 1000 M

1000 M1 Gb 1000 M802.3z4-26


4

MAC

CSMA/CD

/

GMII

PAM5

8b/10b

8b/10b

8b/10b

1000 Base-SX

1000 Base-LX

1000 Base-T

1000 Base-CX

PH

MM550m

SM 5 km

MM

550m~ 5 km

5UTP 550 m

150 STP 25 m

11000 M

1000Base-XCXLXSX/1000Base-T/CX/bit0.001 s

MAC 512Byte4096 bit1518Byte=12144 bitCSMA/CD


4

2MAC

10M64 Byte=512 bitbit0.1s2500m100M5.12 s 5UTP200mbit50.512 s25m

512 b 512 B802.3zFrame Bursting )


4

carrier extension512Bburst frame011500B96 bit1518B3000B


4

31000 Base-X

1000 Base-X802.3z1000 Base-SX1000 Base-LX1000 Base-CX

1000 Base-CX25m

10 GMIIGigabit medium independent intreface8 bitbit125 M bps81 G bps


4

1000 Base-X/PCS(Physical coding sublayer)8b/10b8 10 104560010110 bit0/1DC8 bit


4

41000Base-T

1000 Base-T802.3ab45UTP250M bps5UTP1000 Base-T

5UTP 1000 Base-TTrellis/45GMIIPCS8 bitTrellis42 bitPAM5pulse amplitude modulation with five levelUTP8 bit4PAM5UTP125 M bps


4

4-26 UTP

125 M Hz5UTPTrellisPAM5

PAM548bit28=256PAM554=625625-256=369

1000 Base-Thybrid4-26


4

IEEE

1000 Base-T802.3ab

45UTPtrellisPAM5100

1000 Base-CX802.3z

150258B/10B

1000 Base-LX802.3z

MM550SM50008B/10B

1000 Base-SX802.3z

MM2205508B/10B

4-4


4

4.7

VLANVirtual LANIEEE802.1QVLANVLANVLANVLAN

VLAN 4-28LAN10VLAN


4

C3

B3

A4

LAN3

C2

B2

A3

LAN2

C1

B1

A2

A1

LAN1

VLAN3

VLAN2

VLAN1

4-27


4

4

1

4-28a4-28b

11VLAN1VLAN2


4

VLAN1

VLAN2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

4-28a

1

2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

VLAN1

VLAN2

4-28b


4

2MAC

MACMACMAC


4

  • 3IP

  • MACVLAN

  • VLAN

    MACMAC


4

4IP

IPVLANVLANVLANIPIPIPIPIPVLANVLAN


4

1

2

VLAN

3


4

VPN

IP

4-29 VPN

VPNVitual Private NetworkVPNVPN

1VPN

VPNIP


4

2VPN

VPN

WAN

ISP

VPN

VPN


4

3VPN

VPN Intranet VPNIntranetLAN

VPNExtranet VPN

VPNAccess VPN


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