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Happy Birthday Large Hadron Collider (2008). Reading for Monday: Chapter 4 all Homework 3.1 – Due Monday 9/15/14 Chapter 3 #s 1, 3, 4, 5, 6-40 (even), 66, 68, 74, 78 Homework 3.2 – Due Wednesday 9/17/14 Chapter 3 #s 42-52 (even), 55, 56, 59, 60-64 (even), 80, 86, 88, 94, 96

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happy birthday large hadron collider 2008
Happy Birthday Large Hadron Collider (2008)
  • Reading for Monday:
    • Chapter 4 all
  • Homework 3.1 – Due Monday 9/15/14
    • Chapter 3 #s 1, 3, 4, 5, 6-40 (even), 66, 68, 74, 78
  • Homework 3.2 – Due Wednesday 9/17/14
    • Chapter 3 #s 42-52 (even), 55, 56, 59, 60-64 (even), 80, 86, 88, 94, 96
  • Misc. #1 – Due Wednesday 9/17/14
  • Quiz MONDAY
  • Lab next week
    • Exp. #5
temperature and heat

Thermometers measure temperature!!

The AVERAGE energy in a body of matter

Temperature and Heat

Heat is a measure of TOTAL energy in a body of matter

Energy typically measured in:

joule (J) or calorie (cal)

specific heat
Specific Heat

The amount of energy (J or cal) that is required to raise 1 g of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.

Specific heat for water = or

Specific heat for silver = or

specific heat1
Specific Heat

A SMALLER specific heat means a LARGER temperature change given the same amount of energy.

Temperature change when 51000 calories are added to 1000.0 grams of each:

~900 oC

specific heat2
Specific Heat

change in temp. (oC)

heat (J or cal)

DT = Tfinal - Tinitial

mass (g)

specific heat ( or )

specific heat3
Specific Heat

How many joules are needed to raise the temperature of 500.0 grams of water by 23.0 oC?

joules

raise

500.0 grams

23.0 oC

specific heat4
Specific Heat

How many joules are needed to raise the temperature of 500.0 grams of water by 23.0 oC?

specific heat5
Specific Heat

3718 J is removed from a 51.73 gram piece of copper which was originally at 391.0 oC. What is the final temperature? (S.H. = 0.385 J/goC)

3718 J

removed

51.73 gram

391.0 oC

0.385 J/goC

specific heat6
Specific Heat

When 16.23 calories were added to a piece of gold, its

temperature rose from 23.0 oC to 89.7 oC. What was the mass

of the gold? (S.H. = 0.1276 J/goC)

slide10
Chemistry:The study of the properties and transformations of matter.

Property: A characteristic that can be used to describe a substance. Substances have both physical and chemical properties.

Transformations:A change in the properties of matter with time. There are physical changes and chemical changes.

Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space – things you can see, touch, taste, or smell.

slide11

Gas

Indefinite (variable) shape

Indefinite (variable) volume

Highly compressible

HUGE amounts of space

Highly disordered!!

Lots of KINETIC energy

Low relative density

slide13

Liquid

Indefinite (variable) shape

Definite (fixed) volume

NOT compressible

Very little space between

More ordered than gas

Moderate KINETIC energy

High relative density

slide15

Solid

Definite (fixed) shape

Definite (fixed) volume

NOT compressible

Tightly packed

Well ordered (organized)

Little KINETIC energy

High relative density

slide16
Substances have both physical and chemical properties.

Physical Properties:Density, color, and melting point are physical properties of matter. Observing a physical property can be done without altering the makeup of a substance.

slide17
Physical Change: Does not alter the chemical makeup of a substance.
  • Chemical reactivity is unchanged.
  • Changes in state, changes in particle size, and the formation / separation of mixtures are all examples of physical change.
  • Melting of ice to form liquid water is a physical change. In this case only a change in form takes place. The chemical makeup of the substance remains H2O.
phase transitions
Phase Transitions!!

ADD ENERGY

sublimation

melting

boiling

solid

liquid

gas

freezing

condensation

deposition

REMOVE ENERGY

slide19
Substances have both physical and chemical properties.

Chemical Properties:Chemical composition, what matter is made of, and chemical reactivity, how matter behaves, are chemical properties. Observing a chemical property alters the substance.

slide20
Chemical Change:
  • Alters the makeup of a substance.
  • Reactivity changes with the formation of new substances.
  • Heat, light, or electrical energy is often emitted or absorbed.
  • Potassium reacting with water is an example of a chemical change.
classification of matter
Classification of Matter
  • Pure Substance: Matter that is constant in its chemical composition and properties.
  • Mixture: A blend of two or more pure substances in any ratio each retaining their identity.
  • Physical changes can separate mixtures into one or more pure substances.
element
Element
  • A pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by chemical means.

pure substances

compound

compound

element

mixture

ice cream

 sugar

 CO2

 carbon

physical changes

chemical changes

slide25
Each element has its own unique symbol. One or two letter symbols are used to represent elements. The first letter is always capitalized and the second letter is always a lower case. Examples: C, Cr, P, Pb

Most are “easy” to remember.

‘H’ for hydrogen, ‘O’ for oxygen, ‘N’ for nitrogen

Some are more difficult to learn.

‘Na’ for sodium (from its Latin name Natrium) ‘Pb’ for lead (from its Latin name Plumbum)

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