Human anatomy
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Human Anatomy. Introduction. Do Now. The spinal cord is ____________ to the esophagus The larynx is _____________ to the trachea Tommy is cutting down a tree with a chain saw – it slips and cuts off his head. What type of cut is this ? (What Plane).

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Human Anatomy

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Human Anatomy

Introduction


Do Now

The spinal cord is ____________ to the esophagus

The larynx is _____________ to the trachea

Tommy is cutting down a tree with a chain saw – it slips and cuts off his head. What type of cut is this? (What Plane)


  • Anatomical position – a common visual reference point

    • Person stands erect with feet together and eyes forward

    • Palms face anteriorly with the thumbs pointed away from the body


  • Regional terms – names of specific body areas

    • Axial region – the main axis of the body

    • Appendicular region – the limbs

  • Directional terminology

    • Refers to the body in anatomical position

    • Standardized terms of directions are paired terms


Orientation and Directional Terms


Orientation and Directional Terms


Orientation and Directional Terms


Regional Terms


Regional Terms


Body Planes and Sections


Body Planes and Sections

  • Coronal (frontal) plane - Lies vertically and divides body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) parts

  • Sagittal plane – lies vertically and divides the body into left and right sides.

    • Median (midsagittal) plane - Specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline

  • Transverse plane - runs horizontally and divides body into superior (up) and inferior (down) parts


Body Planes and Sections

  • Oblique section through the trunk

Figure 1.6


Body Cavities and Membranes

  • Dorsal body cavity

  • Cavity subdivided into the cranial cavity and the vertebral cavity.

    • Cranial cavity houses the brain.

    • Vertebral cavity runs through the vertebral column and encloses the spinal cord


Body Cavities and Membranes

  • Ventral body cavity – subdivided into:

    • Thoracic cavity – divided into three parts

      • Two lateral parts each containing a lung surrounded by a pleural cavity

      • Mediastinum – contains the heart surrounded by the pericardial sac


Body Cavities and Membranes

  • Ventral body cavity

    • Abdominopelvic cavity – divided into two parts

      • Abdominal cavity – contains the liver, stomach, kidneys, and other organs

      • Pelvic cavity – contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum


Body Cavities and Membranes

  • Serous cavities – a slit-like space lined by a serous membrane

    • Pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum

      • Parietal serosa – outer wall of the cavity

      • Visceral serosa covers the visceral organs


Body Cavities and Membranes


Other Body Cavities

  • Oral cavity

  • Nasal cavity

  • Orbital cavities

  • Middle ear cavities

  • Synovial cavities


Abdominal Regions and Quadrants

  • Abdominal regions divide the abdomen into nine regions


Abdominal Quadrants

  • Abdominal quadrants divide the abdomen into four quadrants

    • Right upper and left upper quadrants

    • Right lower and left lower quadrants


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