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HIST2134 The Third Reich through Documents, 1933-1945 Spring Semester 2013 Lecture: Tuesday 3.30-4.20 (CPD-3.22) Seminar (5 Feb-): Tuesday 4.30–5.20 (CPD-3.27). http://www.history.hku.hk/undergraduate/ hist2134course.html. HIST2134 The Third Reich through Documents, 1933-1945.

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http www history hku hk undergraduate hist2134course html

HIST2134The Third Reich through Documents, 1933-1945Spring Semester 2013Lecture: Tuesday 3.30-4.20 (CPD-3.22) Seminar (5 Feb-): Tuesday 4.30–5.20 (CPD-3.27)

http://www.history.hku.hk/undergraduate/

hist2134course.html

hist2134 the third reich through documents 1933 1945

HIST2134The Third Reich through Documents, 1933-1945

Lecture 2:

Adolf Hitler and the Rise of Nazism, 1889-1933

29 January 2013

adolf hitler youth
Adolf Hitler: Youth
  • * 20 April 1889, Braunau am Inn (Austria)
  • 1892 in Passau (Bavaria, Germany)
  • 1895 in Linz(Lower Austria)
  • 1903 in Vienna

►Hamann, Brigitte, Hitler’s Vienna (1999)

= His Anti-Semitism probably acquired in Vienna, hotbed of religious prejudice and racism

hitler soldier
Hitler: Soldier
  • 1913 in Munich(Bavaria, Germany)
  • 1914 War volunteer in World War I with Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment 16
  • 1914 Iron Cross Second Class
  • 1916 Wounded in Battle of the Somme
  • 1918 Temporarily blinded by mustard gas
  • 1918 Iron Cross First Class

= Embittered over collapse of war effort

slide5
1919 Appointed intelligence agent of Reichswehr reconnaissance commando to infiltrate DAP (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei = German Workers’ Party)
  • 1919 Attracted by DAP in Munich: Member No. 55 (Oct), not member no. 7

Forged copy of Adolf Hitler\'s membership card in the German Worker Party (DAP), which would later become the NSDAP. His membership number was actually 55.

anti republicans on the right
Anti-Republicans on the Right

German National People’s Party (DNVP)

Early German People’s Party (DVP)

Propagated stab-in-the-back legend

Saw war defeat as Jewish/Leftist/Bolshevist conspiracy

Wanted back monarchy

Demanded strictly revisionist foreign policy

Opposed to fulfilment of Versailles Treaty

adolf hitler party politician
Adolf Hitler: Party politician
  • 1920/21 DAP renamed in NSDAPNationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei

= National Socialist German Workers’ Party:

Swastika (Hakenkreuz) as party emblem

+ Völkischer Beobachter (Racial Observer) as party organ

  • 24.2.1920: Twenty-Five Point Program:

A combination of nationalist, socialist, anti-capitalist, anti-Semitic ideas

  • 29.7.1921: First chairman of NSDAP →Wide powers → Important group of supporters: Rosenberg, Hess, Göring, Amann
hitler putsch or beer hall putsch 8 nov 1923
Hitler Putschor: Beer-Hall Putsch, 8 Nov 1923
  • Unsuccessful attempt of Hitler & Ludendorff to seize power for NS party
  • Amazing achievement of political nobody

= Sentenced to 5 years imprisonment

= Released after 8 months only

= Wrote first part of autobiography Mein Kampf (My Struggle)

nsdap s new founding 1925
NSDAP’s ‘new founding’ (1925)

3 new principles after Hitler’s come-back :

  • Legal tactics instead of putsch to achieve mass mobilisation of voters
  • Centralised structure to be distinct from competing rightist parties + to place party army SA (Storm Troopers/Brown Shirts) fully under Hitler
  • Absolute obedient tool of Hitler

= Hitler as NSDAP dictator called Führer

crisis of democracy 1929 32 3 factors
Crisis of Democracy, 1929-32:3 factors

 Mass unemployment (≥ 6 million)

 ‘Presidential government’: Art. 53 of Weimar Constitution

► First step into authoritarian regime

► Shift of power from parliament to government

► Democracy already at stake

 NSDAP election wins

= Gradual demise of Weimar Republic

hitler s way to power 8 explanations
Hitler’s Way to Power:8 explanations
  • Political: Versailles Treaty
  • Economic: Economic crises
  • Institutional: Weimar constitution
  • Sociological: Lower middle class
  • Ideological: Authoritarian tradition
  • Marxist: Necessary crisis of capitalism
  • Mass psychology: Propaganda
  • Personality: Hitler
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